Concentration-response of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated release of TNF-α and IL-8 from human gestational membranes in Transwell cultures. Cytokine concentrations were measured in medium from the amniotic and choriodecidual sides of Transwell cultures of human extra-placental gestational membranes after an 8-h exposure to 1, 10, 100 or 1000 ng LPS/ml. The LPS was added to both the amniotic and choriodecidual compartments of the cultures. Controls were exposed to culture medium without LPS. The very low means of TNF-α concentrations in controls are nearly contiguous with the x-axis. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of combined values from triplicate cultures for each subject; n = 7 subjects. *Significantly different from control values from the same side of the membranes (p < 0.05). #Significantly different from amniotic compartment values of the same treatment (p < 0.05).