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Figure 1 | Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology

Figure 1

From: Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

Figure 1

The figure shows various cellular targets of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW). Acute (short term) exposure to RF-EMW can stimulate plasma membrane NADH oxidase which can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Increase in ROS can stimulate endothelial growth factor (EGF) receptor which in turn activates extra cellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK pathway consist of subsequent activation of Ras, Raf proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). MAPK pathway has tumor promoting role. Chronic exposure to ROS can activate various stress kinase (p38 MAP kinase). Activation of p38 MAP kinase can stimulate ERK pathway and also lead to phosphorylation of heat shock proteins (Hsp) which inhibits apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis might promote carcinogenesis by prolonging survival of cell with damaged DNA. Hsp also stabilizes endothelial stress fiber and alters secretion of bFGF. This can lead to increase in permeability of blood testis barrier and causes infertility. RF-EMW can also promote cancer by stimulating ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis pathway as well as by interfering with plasma membrane calcium channels.

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