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Table 1 some of the key factors regulating EVT cell functions

From: Control of human trophoblast function

Factors Source Effect Ref.
   Proliferation Migration Invasiveness  
Adhesion molecules Trophoblast   ↑↓ ↑↓ 53
Angiopoietins Decidua, trophoblast    36
Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Placenta, decidua    59
Decorin Decidua 60
Epidermal Growth Factor Decidua, trophoblast   61
Endothelin Placental blood vessels, CT, ST, EVT    62
Hepatocyte Growth Factor Decidua, trophoblast   63
Insulin-like Growth Factor II Trophoblast   64,65
Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 Decidua   64,65
Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule Uterine smooth muscle cells    66
Metalloproteinases Trophoblast    67
Nodal Placenta    68
Hypoxia     ↑↓ 54,55
Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Trophoblast   69
Prostaglandin E 2 Decidua, trophoblast    57
    58
8-iso-PGF Decidua    70
Placental Growth Factor Trophoblast    71
TGF-β Decidua, trophoblast, uNK cells 61,64
TNF-α Decidua, uNK cells, decidual macrophages    72
VEGF Decidua, trophoblast    73