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Table 1 Pesticides with known or suspected endocrine disrupting properties, mechanisms and effects on the female reproductive system in experimental animals

From: Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted?

Pesticides Mechanisms Effects in experimental animals
Alachlor - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [64]
- binding other receptors [81]
- unknown -
Aldrin - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [55] - unknown -
Amitraz - interference with hormone storage and release [37] - unknown -
Atrazine - interference with hormone synthesis [29]
- binding without activating the estrogen receptor [70,71]
- modulation of hormone concentrations [94,95]
- ovarian cycle irregularities [109-112,119]
Diaminochlorotriazine - binding without activating the estrogen receptor [70,71] - unknown -
Dicofol - unknown - - impaired fertility [127]
Dieldrin - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [31,59-61]
- binding other receptors [31]
- unknown -
Biphenol - binding other receptors [74,79,80] - unknown -
Dimethoate - unknown - - ovarian cycle irregularities [107,108]
Carbofuran - unknown - - ovarian cycle irregularities [113]
Chlordecone - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [66]
- binding other receptors [66]
- ovarian cycle irregularities [103]
- impaired fertility [102,104]
Chlordimeform - interference with hormone storage and release [37] - impaired fertility [123]
Chlorophenols - interference with overall metabolic rate [85,86] - unknown -
Chlorophenoxy acids - interference with overall metabolic rate [85,86] - unknown -
DDT analogs - interference with hormone transport and clearance [47]
- binding and activating the estrogen receptor [55-57]
- binding other receptors [66,74,76]
- interference with the central nervous system [88,89]
- modulation of hormone concentrations [101]
- ovarian cycle irregularities [103]
- impaired fertility [127]
D-trans allethrin - binding other receptors [65] - unknown -
Endosulfan - interference with hormone storage and release [48]
- binding and activating the estrogen receptor [31,58,59]
- binding other receptors [81]
- unknown -
Endrin - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [55] - unknown -
Fenarimol - interference with hormone synthesis [26,27]
- binding and activating the estrogen receptor [31,62]
- binding other receptors [31]
- impaired fertility [27]
Fenitrothion - binding other receptors [78] - unknown -
Fenvalerate - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [65]
- binding other receptors [65]
- unknown -
Heptachlor - interference with hormone synthesis [32] - modulation of hormone concentrations [92,93]
- ovarian cycle irregularities [114]
- impaired fertility [93]
Hexachlorobenzene - unknown - - modulation of hormone concentrations [96-98]
- ovarian cycle irregularities [96-98]
Iprodion - interference with hormone synthesis [31] - unknown -
Kepone - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [54] - unknown -
Ketaconazole - interference with hormone synthesis [28,36] - unknown -
Lindane - interference with hormone storage and release [49]
- binding without activating the estrogen receptor [67-69]
- interference with hormone postreceptor activation [82]
- modulation of hormone concentrations [94,95]
- ovarian cycle irregularities [68,69]
- impaired fertility [125,126]
Linuron - binding other receptors [74,77] - unknown -
Malathion - interference with hormone storage and release [42] - ovarian cycle irregularities [107,108]
Mancozeb - unknown - - ovarian cycle irregularities [116]
- impaired fertility [116,122]
Methiocarb - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [31]
- binding other receptors [31]
- unknown -
Methoxychlor - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [31,50-53]
- binding other receptors [74]
- interference with the central nervous system [88,89]
- modulation of hormone concentrations [99,100]
- impaired fertility [100,102,104,124]
Methomyl - interference with hormone synthesis [31] - unknown -
Methyl parathion - unknown - - ovarian cycle irregularities [105,106]
- impaired fertility [106]
Mirex - interference with hormone storage and release [48] - unknown -
Nonylphenol - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [63] - unknown -
Organochlorine compounds - interference with overal metabolic rate [85,86] - ovarian cycle irregularities [102-104]
Pentachrophenol - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [63] - unknown -
Pirimicarb - interference with hormone synthesis [31] - unknown -
P,P-DDE - interference with hormone synthesis [30] - unknown -
Prochloraz - interference with hormone synthesis [28]
- binding without activiating the estrogen receptor [31]
- binding other receptors [31]
- unknown -
Procymidone - binding other receptors [74,76] - unknown -
Propamocarb - interference with hormone synthesis [31] - unknown -
Propazine - interference with hormone synthesis [29] - unknown -
Quinones - interference with overall metabolic rate [85,86] - unknown -
Simazine - interference with hormone synthesis [29]
- binding without activating the estrogen receptor [70,71]
- modulation of hormone concentrations [94,95]
Sodium-N-methyl- dithiocarbamate - interference with hormone synthesis [33] - ovarian cycle irregularities [33]
Sumithion - unknown - - ovarian cycle irregularities [108]
Sumithrin - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [65,66] - unknown -
TCDD - hormone receptor activation [83,84] - unknown -
3,3',4,4'-tetra chloroazoxybenzene - unknown - - ovarian cycle irregularities [117]
Thiram - interference with hormone synthesis [34]
- interference with hormone storage and release [39]
- ovarian cycle irregularities [120]
Toxaphene - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [58-60] - unknown -
Triadimefon - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [62] - unknown -
Triadimenol - binding and activating the estrogen receptor [62]  
Vinclozolin - binding other receptors [72-75] - unknown -