Skip to main content

Table I Factors that inhibit granulosa cell estradiol production.

From: Evidence of a local negative role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), inhibins and low molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding proteins in regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production during follicular waves in cattle

Factor Species Reference Comments
Tumor necrosis factor-α Cows, rats [30, 31, 38]  
Glucocorticoids Cows, hamsters, pigs [39-41]  
Leptin cows, rats, humans, sheep [42-48] Passive immunization caused acute elevation in E production, whereas administration of low dose leptin into vena cava caused acute decrease in E production [48].
Basic fibroblast growth factor Cows [49]  
Transforming growth factor-α Cows, mice, pigs [51, 52]  
Transforming growth factor-β Cows, mice, pigs [53, 54]  
Epidermal growth factor Sheep, mouse [50, 51]  
Interleukin-1 (α and β) Cows, rats, humans [30-35] Effects were mediated by nitric oxide [35].
Interleukin-2 Cows [30]  
Interleukin-6 Cows, humans [29,30,36,37]  
Interferon β Cows [30]  
Interferon γ Cows [30]  
Interferon τ Cows [30]