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Table 1 Summary of major reproductive dysfunction or anomalies associated with fetal deficiency or excess of androgen or estrogen

From: Contributions of androgen and estrogen to fetal programming of ovarian dysfunction

Major reproductive dysfunction/anomaly Fetal deficiency of: Fetal excess of:
  Androgenb Estrogena Androgen Estrogen
Ovarian     
Reduced ovulatory frequency + [29] + [45] + [12, 50–56] + [15, 76, 80, 81]
Reduced follicle number ? + [33, 44] + [69] + [14, 77]
Reduced ovarian response to FSH + [29] + [42, 43] + [69] ?
Excessive, endogeneous hypergonadotropic-inducing hemorrhagic follicles - + [38, 45] - -
Ovarian hyperandrogenism - + [38] + [49, 53] + [77, 79]
Polycystic ovaries ? - + [13, 52, 57] ?
Impaired oocyte developmental competence ? ? + [28, 69, 70] ?
Partial masculinization of the ovary - + [47, 48] - -
Premature ovarian senescence ? ? + [50–52] ?
Neuroendocrine     
Increased LH levels ? + [24, 38, 45] + [12, 53, 56, 60] ?
Increased FSH levels ? + [24, 45] - ?
De-sensitized estradiol/progesterone negative feedback on LH ? ? + [49, 53–56, 58–60] ?
Increased gonadotrope LH sensitivity to GnRH ? ? + [49] ?
  1. a : as discussed in the text, many instances of fetal androgen and estrogen deficiencies persist into adult life and partially confound assessments of the precise causes of the reproductive abnormalities found.
  2. b : abnormalities summarized in this table reflect studies in which there were no concomitant deficiencies in estrogen