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Table 1 Chemicals in Cigarette Smoke that Impair Oviductal Functioning 1

From: Smoking and reproduction: The oviduct as a target of cigarette smoke

LOAELs (M)2
CHEMICALS Oocyte Ciliary Beat Contraction FEMA FDA ADDED5
  Pick-up Rate Frequency Rate GRAS3 EAFUS4  
PYRIDINES       
2-ethylpyridine 9.35 × 10-12 9.35 × 10-12 9.35 × 10-12    
4-methylpyridine 9.50 × 10-11 9.50 × 10-11 9.50 × 10-11    
2-methylpyridine 9.35 × 10-11 9.35 × 10-11 9.35 × 10-10    
4-ethenylpyridine 9.30 × 10-11 9.30 × 10-9 9.30 × 10-11    
3-ethylpyridine 9.33 × 10-10 9.33 × 10-11 9.33 × 10-10
Nornicotine 6.85 × 10-9 6.85 × 10-8 6.85 × 10-8    
beta-nicotyrine 6.33 × 10-9 6.30 × 10-8 X6    
2,4,6-trimethylpyridine 8.25 × 10-8 8.25 × 10-6 8.25 × 10-8    
2,4-dimethylpyridine 9.34 × 10-7 X6 9.34 × 10-9    
2,3-dimethylpyridine 9.34 × 10-7 9.34 × 10-7 X6    
4,4-bipyridine 8.78 × 10-6 8.78 × 10-7 8.78 × 10-4    
2,5-dimethylpyridine 9.34 × 10-5 X6 9.34 × 10-5    
3,4-dimethylpyridine 1.76 × 10-5 X6 1.76 × 10-4    
pyridine 1.27 × 10-5 1.27 × 10-3 1.27 × 10-3
3-methylpyridine 1.23 × 10-5 Xd 1.23 × 10-2    
2,2-bipyridine 8.74 × 10-4 8.74 × 10-2 8.74 × 10-2    
cotinine 2.84 × 10-2 2.84 × 10-5 X6    
nicotine 9.01 × 10-2 X6 6.70 × 10-2    
PYRAZINES       
2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine 10-12 10-9 10-12    
pyrazine 10-11 10-12 10-9  
2-methylpyrazine 10-11 10-12 10-11
2-ethylpyrazine 10-11 10-12 10-12   
2,5-dimethylpyrazine 10-11 10-8 10-9
2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine 10-10 10-9 10-9
2,6-dimethylpyrazine 10-9 10-6 10-7
PHENOLS, INDOLES, OTHERS       
Indole 10-14 10-13 10-15   
Isoquinoline 10-13 10-12 10-13   
4-Ethylphenol 10-12 10-11 10-12  
Quinoline 10-11 10-13 10-11   
4-Methylphenol 10-11 10-12 10-11  
2-Methylphenol 10-11 10-9 10-11  
5-Methylindole 10-11 10-10 10-10    
2,6-Dimethoxyphenol 10-11 10-10 10-9   
Hydroquinone 10-10 10-10 10-10    
3-Methyl-2-cylcopenten-1-one 10-10 10-7 10-10    
2,4-Dimethylphenol 10-10 10-9 10-9    
2-Methoxyphenol 10-10 10-8 10-8    
2-Cyclopenten-1-one 10-9 10-7 10-9    
4-Methoxyphenol 10-8 10-7 10-7    
2-Ethylphenol 10-8 10-5 10-7    
2,5-Dimethylphenol 10-7 10-8 10-6    
Benzene 10-7 10-8 10-6    
Phenol 10-2 10-1 10-2   
  1. 1Compiled from References 131, 132, and 135.
  2. 2LOAEL = Lowest observed adverse effect level in the oocyte pick-up rate, ciliary beat frequency, and muscle contractions assays.
  3. 3Chemicals known to be on the FEMA GRAS list. Others may also be on this list.
  4. 4Chemicals on the FDA EAFUS list (Everything Added to Food in the United States).
  5. 5Chemicals that are added to cigarettes by American tobacco companies.
  6. 6No effect at the highest dose tested.