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Table 1 Overview of ligands, both endogenous and exogenous, for the PPAR isotypes. Asterisks denote presence in the ovary, and/or reported affect on ovarian cells.

From: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and ovarian function – implications for regulating steroidogenesis, differentiation, and tissue remodeling

Endogenous Ligands Source Specificity for PPAR isotype Reference
Polyunsaturated fatty acids* Diet Metabolism PPARα>PPARδ>>PPARγ [25]; reviewed in [5]
Eicosanoids* Inflammation PPARα, PPARδ, PPARγ [25]
   8-HETE Metabolism PPARα  
   PGJ2   PPARγ>>>PPARα>PPARδ [17] [26]
   PGA1   PPARδ>>PPARα,PPARγ [17] [25]
   PGI2   PPARδ reviewed in [16]
   Leukotriene B4   PPARα [23] [25]
Lysophosphatidic acid* Metabolism PPARγ [18]
Oxidized LDL Metabolism PPARγ reviewed in [29]
Exogenous Ligands Source Specificity for PPAR isotype Reference
Herbicides/fungicides Environment PPARγ [19]; reported in [1]
Plasticizers* Environment Industry   [137]; reviewed in [15]
NSAIDS Pharmaceutical PPARγ>PPARα>>PPARδ [20] [28]
Fibrates* Pharmaceutical PPARα>>>PPARγ [25]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Environment PPARα, PPARδ [21]
Herbal/plant compounds Traditional medicine PPARα, PPARγ>PPARδ reviewed in [14]
   Genistein* Plants PPARγ [138]
Thiazolidinediones* Pharmaceutical PPARγ [23] [55]