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Table 2 Measurement of biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnancy

From: Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

Study Biomarkers Methodology Measurement units
Jauniaux et al [59] Immunohistochemistry Heat shock protein 70, hydroxynenal, nitrotyrosine residues. Fluorescence intensity
Wang et al, Djordjevic et al [60, 61] Antioxidant enzyme activity assays Total SOD activity, catalase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione assay Change in optical density/minutes/mg protein
Wiktor et al [62] Oxidative DNA adducts 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine Micromoles/mole of 2-deoxy guanosine
Holthe et al [63] Superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite Dihydrethidium probe Dichlorodihydrofluorescein Dihydrorhodamine 123 Spectrophotometry/flow cytometry Nanomoles/10 min/106 cells
Ishihara et al [64] Lipid peroxidation products Isoprostane, Urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2lpha, assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometer analysis pg/mg of creatinine
Vaisanen-Tommiska et al [65] Nitric oxide; Greiss reaction Stable end products: nitrite/nitrate Fluorometric assay, results expressed as NOx (sum of converted nitrite and very small amount of nitrite in serum).
Buhimishi et al [66] Plasma and red blood cell glutathione content Colorimetric assay Nanomoles/mgm of haemoglobin