Cell invasion ability of JAR cells, 1st trimester trophoblast cells 6–8 week or 1st trimester trophoblast cells 9–12 week tested with Transwell Invasion Assay. (A) represents JAR cells, (B) 1st trimester trophoblast cells 6–8 week and (C) 1st trimester trophoblast cells 9–12 week. Cells were treated with 8 ng/ml EGF and incubated 36 hours on Matrigel coated membrane, with or without MMP-2 or MMP-9 inhibitory antibodies. Cells that invaded the membrane to lower well were counted with XTT. Results represent mean +SEM from 10 independent experiments. Black bars represent control (cells without treatment or cells treated with EGF) with no antibodies. Gray bars represent cells (without treatment or EGF treated) with addition of MMP-2 inhibitory antibody. White bars represent cells (without treatment or EGF treated) with addition of MMP-9 inhibitory antibody. ANOVA for all groups results in p < 0.05, post test confirmed the t test results. * P < 0.05.