Placentation in Afrotheria. (A) Endotheliochorial placenta of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The cellular trophoblast (CYTO TR) is deeply indented by the fetal capillary (FC), which is separated by <3 μm from the endothelium of the maternal capillary (ENDO). Reprinted from reference  with permission ©Elsevier 2003. (B). Hemochorial placenta of the lesser Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi. Maternal blood spaces (MBS) are lined by cellular trophoblast (CYTO TR) with microvilli (arrow). Reprinted from reference  with permission ©Elsevier 2003. (C) Fetal membranes in the rock hyrax Procavia capensis. The large allantoic sac is divided into four lobes by septa that carry four sets of allantoic vessels to the zonary placenta. The yolk sac is greatly reduced in late gestation. Reprinted from reference  with permission from the Carnegie Institution of Washington.