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Table 2 Summary of Molecular Changes Associated with Prostate Cancer Metastasis

From: Changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins in the metastatic progression of prostate cancer

Cell line ECM Proteases Integrins
VcaP   ↑ PAR [24] ↑αVβ3 [11]
PC-3→PC-3(Neu-T) ↑ CollIV [30] ↑ PAR [24] ↑αVβ3 [11]
PC-3M ↓ ICAM-1 [30] ↑ MT1-MMP [105]  
  ↑ N-Cadherin [49] ↓ NEP [156] ↑α2β1 [97]
  ↓ E-Cadherin [49] ↑ Cathepsin D [157, 158]  
  ↑ Cadherin 11 [37] ↑ uPA [116]  
DU-145    
   ↑ MT1-MMP [105]  
   ↑ MMP-9 [159]  
   ↓ NEP [156]  
   uPA [116]  
LNCaP→C4-2 ↑ OSC [32] ↑ uPA [116] ↑α3β1 (usage) [63]
  ↑ OPN [27] ↑ PSA [34] ↑α1 (usage) [63]
  ↑ BSP [32] Cathepsin D (LNCaP) [157, 158] ↑αVβ3 (usage) [63]
  E-Cadherin [155]   ↓α6β4 [63]
    ↑α2 [63]
    ↑α6β1 [63]
NbE1.4 (Neu-T)    
  ↑ Laminin [31]   
  ↑ CollIV [31]   ↑α6β1 [31]
Tissues    
Benign→Malignant ↑ BSP [160] ↑ Cathepsin BA [110, 111] ↑β1 subunit [87]
  ↑ Cadherin 11 [37] ↑ Cathepsin S [110] ↓α6β4 [81]
  ↑ N-Cadherin [49] ↑ MMP9 [104] ↑αVβ3
  ↓ E-Cadherin [87] ↑ Cathepsin K "bone" [112] ↓β4 [84]
  ↓ Laminin [40] ↑ HK2 [161] ↓β4 (loss polarity) [85]
  ↑ Tenascin C [39] ↑ MMP2 [162] ↓α2 [86]
  ↓ Collagen VII [81] ↑ MMP7 [163] ↓α4 [86]
   ↓ TIMP1 [163] ↓αV [86]
   ↑ Cathepsin D [164]  
   ↑ MMP26 165  
  1. VCaP, PC-3, and DU-145 are advanced prostate cancer cell lines and were compared to the less advanced LNCaP cell line. The information under cell lines reflects this comparison. Please note the following: "bone" refers to observations specific for the bone-derived cell lines or malignant tissue from the bone, ↑ refers to an increase expression and ↓ refers to a decrease expression, OSC refers to osteocalcin, OPN refers osteopontin, superscript A refers to increased activation, MMP is matrix-metalloproteinase and LNCaP→C4-2 refers to LNCaP progression to androgen-independent C4-2 subline.