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Table 3 Mean serum hormone concentrations (SD) by visit during gestation (N = 106 pregnant women)

From: Urinary phthalate metabolites in relation to maternal serum thyroid and sex hormone levels during pregnancy: a longitudinal analysis

Biomarker Visit 1 (14–20 weeks) Visit 3 (24–28 weeks) p-value*
Thyroid Hormones    
TSH (uIU/mL)† 1.10 (1.60) 1.17 (1.65) 0.25
Free T3 (pg/mL) 4.01 (0.61) 3.86 (0.59) 0.02
Free T4 (ng/dL) 1.45 (0.31) 1.32 (0.32) 0.001
Sex Hormones    
Progesterone (ng/mL)† 46.9 (1.37) 88.4 (1.48) <0.001
Estradiol (ng/mL) 5.70 (2.48) 11.1 (3.60) <0.001
SHBG (nmol/L) 349 (108) 391 (106) 0.002
  1. SD, standard deviation, TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone, SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin.
  2. †Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation reported.
  3. *Test for fixed effects from linear mixed models with random intercepts.