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Table 1 Summary of published studies included

From: Polymorphisms in estrogen receptors predict the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis

Author Year Race Source of control Method Polymorphism sites Characteristics of study patients Case/control counts HWE (Control)
Meng [19] 2013 Asian PB PCR-RFLP rs2234693, rs9340799, rs1256049, rs4986938 Age: 25–38 years (mean age 32.1 ± 5.2 years). Exclusion criteria: abnormal karyotypes, deletions of the Y chromosome, orchitis, varicocele, cryptorchidism, congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and iatrogenic infertility. TT:83/82, CT:96/126, CC:25/44; AA:151/148, AG:42/89,GG:11/15; GG:103/127, AG:91/102, AA:10/23; GG:155/193, AG:41/48, AA:8/11 0.712, 0.793, 0.699, 0.001
Zalata [5] 2013 Caucasian PB PCR-RFLP rs2234693, rs9340799 Inclusion criteria: same ethnic origin (Caucasians). Exclusion criteria: varicocele, hormonal therapy, hypogonadism, smoking, Y chromosome deletions and karyotype abnormalities. The ages of were not shown in the article. TT:33/14, CT:32/27, CC:16/19; AA:28/8, AG:36/32, GG: 17/20 0.468, 0.389
Ogata [20] 2012 Asian PB PCR-RFLP rs1256049 Age: 32–52 years (median 41.0 years). Inclusion criteria: no extragenital anomalies, seminal tract obstruction, varicocele, Y chromosomal microdeletion, or retrograde ejaculation; normal karyotypes. GG:68/64, AG:49/45, AA:8/10 0.604
Bianco [7] 2011 Caucasian PB TaqMan assays rs2234693, rs9340799, rs1256049, rs4986938 Age: 36.1 ± 6.5 years. Exclusion criteria: chromosome anomalies, azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions, smoking, alcoholism, occupation, varicocele, and cryptorchidism. TT:30/37, CT:93/111, CC:64/68; AA:80/100, AG:79/88, GG:20/28; GG:172/201, AG:15/15, AA:0/0; GG:43/28, AG:60/103, AA:84/85 0.468, 0.221, 0.597, 0.712
Safarinejad [21] 2010 Asian PB PCR-RFLP rs2234693, rs9340799, rs1256049, rs4986938 Age: 31.6 ± 4.8 years (range 25–40 years). Inclusion criterion: two years with no reason for their infertility. Exclusion criteria: varicocele or testicular torsion, urinary tract infections, endocrinopathy, karyotype anomalies, Y-chromosome microdeletions, use of drugs, leukocytospermia, a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater. TT:49/33, CT:70/86, CC:45/45; AA:62/41, AG:77/95, GG:25/28; GG:142/152, AG:21/8, AA:1/4; GG:65/80, AG:82/63, AA:17/21 0.486, 0.034, 0.000, 0.132
Lazaros [22] 2010 Caucasian PB PCR-RFLP rs2234693, rs9340799, rs1256049, rs4986938 Age: 33.2 ± 67.5 years. Exclusion criteria: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, obstructive syndromes of the seminal tract, microdeletions of the Y chromosome, karyotypic abnormalities. TT:6/20, CT:14/40, CC:9/25; AA:5/13, AG:13/43, GG:11/29; GG:26/80, AG:3/5, AA:0/0; GG:7/17, AG:12/36, AA:10/32 0.609, 0.652, 0.779, 0.246
Khattri [23] 2007 Asian PB PCR-RFLP rs1256049 Age: 23.24 ± 2.06 years. Exclusion criteria: obstruction, endocrinological defect, injuries, karyotypic abnormality, Y-chromosome microdeletions. GG:397/231, AG:46/21, AA:0/0 0.490
Omrani [24] 2005 Asian PB PCR-RFLP rs1256049, rs4986938 Exclusion criteria: genetic causes of infertility, such as Klinefelter syndrome or Ychromosome microdeletions. The ages of patients were no shown in the article. GG:103/194, AG:17/9, AA:0/1; GG:51/86, AG:57/88,AA:12/30 0.023, 0.339
Aschim [25] 2005 Caucasian PB PCR-RFLP rs1256049, rs4986938 Exclusion criteria: Klinefelter syndrome or Y-chromosome microdeletions, a history of cryptorchidism were excluded. The ages of patients were no shown in the article. GG:92/177, AG:14/8, AA:0/1; GG:11/82, AG:48/79, AA:47/25 0.015, 0.394
Kukuvitis [26] 2002 Caucasian PB PCR-RFLP rs2234693, rs9340799 Exclusion criteria: any known aetiologies (varicocele, infections of accessory glands, cryptorchidism, homozygous form of β-thalassemia). The ages of patients were no shown in the article. TT:38/18, CT:38/25, CC:33/21; AA:30/10, AG:45/28, GG:34/26 0.083, 0.594
  1. PB, Population Based; PCR-RFLP, Polymerase Chain Reaction–restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism; HWE, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium; BMI, body mass index.