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Table 1 BPA effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in animal experiments

From: Bisphenol a and the female reproductive tract: an overview of recent laboratory evidence and epidemiological studies

Study Sample Dose Route of administration Time of exposure Results
Monje et al. [16] Female rats 0.05, 20 mg/kg day Subcutaneous injections PND 1-7 BPA20 group no production of estradiol-induced LH surge; ERα expression increased in AVPV and decreased in arcuate nucleus (ARC); PR expression decrease in AVPV
Patisaul et al. [17] Rat offspring 250 μg every 12 h Subcutaneous injections PND 1-2 Increased number of TH-positive cells in the male population
Rubin et al. [18] Mouse offspring 0, 25,250 ng/kg BW/day Subcutaneous implantation (Alzet osmotic pumps) GD 8- d 16 of lactation BPA; 250 female offspring; significantly decreased number of TH-positive cells; alterations in sexually dysmorphic behavior
Kundakovic et al. [20] Mouse offspring 2, 20, 200 μg/kg Oral administration GD O-19 Upregulation of Dnmt3a mRNA in the male prefrontal cortex correlated with hypermethylation of the Esr1 gene; downregulation of Dnmt1 in the female hypothalamus associated with hypomethylation of the Esr1 gene; decreased Esr1 expression in the male prefrontal cortex and in the female hypothalamus; changes in social, exploratory and anxiety-like behavior.
Fernandez et al. [21] Female rats, pituitary cells in vitro 50, 500 μg/50 μl Subcutaneous injections PND 1-10 BPA500 significantly lower serum LH basally and after GnRH stimulation; alterations in GnRH pulsatility; advanced puberty onset
Navarro et al. [23] Male and females rats 100, 500 μg/rat Subcutaneous injections PND 1-5 Decreased expression level of hypothalamic KiSS-1 mRNA at the prepubertal stage
Bai et al. [24] Male rat offspring 2 μg/kg Subcutaneous injections GD 10- d 7 of lactation Up-regulation of KISS-positive AVPV cells in prepubertal, pubertal, and adult male rats exposed perinatally to BPA
Xi et al., 2011 [25] Mice offspring 12,25,50 mg/kg/day By gavage Dams: GD 1- PND 20; Pups: PND 21-49 Dose-dependent increases in the expression levels of KiSS-1, GnRH and FSH mRNA in BPA-exposed female and male pups; inhibition in the expressions of testicular steroidogenic enzymes and the synthesis of testosterone in the male pups; greater aromatase expression level and synthesis of estrogen in the female pups