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Table 1 Details of the cohort distributions and potential confounders with comparisons between the groups

From: Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort

  Cohort Non-obese Obese P-value
  (n = 42) (n = 19) (n = 23)  
Age distribution (years):     
 21–24 2.4 5.3 0 0.465
 25–29 11.9 5.3 17.4 0.376
 30–34 23.8 36.8 13.0 0.291
 35–39 28.5 31.6 26.1 1.000
 40–44 16.7 10.6 21.7 0.682
 45-50 16.7 10.6 21.7 0.682
BMI:     
 18–24.9 (normal weight) 16.7 36.8 - -
 25–29.9 (over-weight) 28.5 63.2 - -
 30–34.9 (obese) 21.4 - 39.1 -
 35–39.9 (morbidly obese) 21.4 - 39.1 -
 40–44.9 (morbidly obese) 11.9 - 21.7 -
Demographics:     
 Caucasian 71.4 73.7 69.6 1.000
 Coloured* 23.8 15.8 30.4 0.488
 Black 4.8 10.6 0 0.221
 Asian - - - -
Medications:     
 Hypertension 19.0 5.3 30.4 0.122
 Cholesterol 14.3 5.3 21.7 0.378
 COX inhibitors 7.1 0 13.0 0.251
Insulin Resistance:     
(QUICKI < 0.357) 61.9 15.8 100 0.006
Sperm parameters:     
 Oligozoospermia 26.2 15.8 34.8 0.326
 Asthenozoospermia 42.9 31.6 52.2 0.568
 Necrozoospermia 61.9 52.6 69.6 0.622
 Teratozoospermia 78.6 68.4 86.9 0.645
 MMP 50.0 15.8 78.3 0.023
 DF 42.9 15.8 65.2 0.043
Recent history of couple infertility 21.4 10.6 30.4 0.276
  1. Variables are represented as percentages rounded to the nearest decimal point. Recent history of couple infertility was defined as an inability to achieve a conception with regular sexual intercourse over last 12 months. Sperm parameter definitions were based on WHO guidelines [6]. DF (percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA) = > 25% spermatozoa damaged [9]; percentage of spermatozoa with damaged mitochondria (MMP) = > 36% spermatozoa [28]. P-value was determined using Fisher’s Exact Test. *Couloured racial groups refers to a mixed ethnic origin with ancestry from Europe, Asia and various local tribes such as Khoisan that is unique to Southern African regions.