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Table 2 Summary of studies with longitudinal follow-up of serum AMH levels in young women undergoing chemotherapy (CT) for adult cancer

From: Serum AMH level as a marker of acute and long-term effects of chemotherapy on the ovarian follicular content: a systematic review

Study Cancer Treatment Age (range) Times of AMH measurement Number of patients Conclusions about AMH follow up
Anderson, 2006 [[28]] Early stage breast cancer 7 protocols all including alkylating agents 41 (28–52) Before CT, every 3 months during CT 56 -Significant fall of AMH levels 3 months after the start of CT.
       -Undetectable values of AMH in most patients at the end of CT.
       -Different degrees of gonadotoxicity according to protocols.
Anders, 2008 [27] Early stage breast cancer Anthracycline, cyclophosphamide and taxane 40 (21–51) Before CT, 3 to 6 weeks post CT, 6 months and year post CT 38 -Undetectable values of AMH in most patients at the end of CT and one year post-CT.
       -Pre-CT AMH levels lower among women who became amenorrheic compared to those who resumed menses.
Decanter, 2010 [24] Lymphoma Alkylating or non Alkylating regimens 24 (18–32) Before CT, 15 days after first cycle, 15 days before last cycle, every 3 months after CT until 1 year 30 (17 non alkylating protocol, 13 alkylating protocol) No difference between protocols regarding the depletion phase:
-Acute fall of AMH as soon as 15 days after the start of CT.
-Undetectable values of AMH at the end of CT in both protocols.
Different recovery phases according to protocol:
-Very low or undetectable AMH levels in the alkylating group 1 year post-CT.
       -Return to pre-treatment values of AMH as soon as the 6th month of follow-up in the non-alkylating group.
Rosendahl, 2010 [53] Lymphoma, Breast cancer, Ewing sarcoma 7 different protocols 30 (19–35) Before CT, one week after each CT or every 2 weeks until 16 weeks of treatment, once a month until one year after first CT 17 (13 alkylating protocol, 4 non alkylating protocol) -Acute fall of AMH levels as soon as one week after the first cycle of CT.
-Undetectable values of AMH in most patients at the end of CT.
       -Significantly lower AMH one year after the end of CT in case of alkytlating protocols than in case of non alkylating ones.
Yu, 2010 [29] Breast cancer 3 different protocols all including alkylating agents 37 (27–40) Before CT, 6, 12, 36 and 52 weeks after first CT 26 -Significant fall of AMH levels 6 weeks after the start of CT.
-Undetectable values of AMH in most patients at the end of CT.
       -Undetectable AMH levels in all patient but one 52 weeks after first CT.
Anderson, 2011 [25] Early stage breast cancer 7 protocols all including alkylating agents 41 (28,6-52,7) Before CT, 2,3,4 and 5 years post CT 42 -Lower serum AMH levels, 2–5 years after CT, than pretreatment ones.
-Undetectable AMH in most women, 2–5 years post-CT.
       -Pretreatment AMH level is strongly predictive of long term ovarian function after CT.
Dillon, 2013 [52] Different types of cancer Different protocols 26,1 (15 – 35,9) Before CT, Every 3 month during and after treatment 46 (33 alkylating protocol) Difference between protocols regarding the depletion phase:
-Significant fall of AMH levels 3 months after initiation of CT in alkylating and non-alkylating groups
-Lower AMH at the end of treatment with alkylating agents compared with unexposed participants
Different recovery phases according to protocol and to pretreatment AMH level:
-Rate of recovery of AMH 9 months after CT higher in non alkylating protocol than in alkylating protocol
       -Rate of recovery of AMH 9 months after CT higher when pre-treatment AMH was >2 ng/ml than when it was ≤ 2 ng/m
Anderson, 2013 [26] Early stage breast cancer 8 protocols, 7 including alkylating agents 42,6 (23,3–52,5) Before CT, after 1 or 2 cycles of CT, 1 and 2 years post CT 59 -Significant fall of AMH after 1 cycle of CT.
-Undetectable values of AMH in most patients after 2 or more cycles of CT and at 1 year post CT.
       -Pretreatment AMH level is strongly predictive of post CT ovarian function (menses) at 1 and 2 years post CT.
Henry, 2013 [51] Breast cancer 5 protocols all including alkylating agents except for 1 patient 41 (25–50) Before CT, 1 month post CT, 1 year post CT. 27 -Undetectable values of AMH in all patients 1 month post CT.
       -Undetectable AMH levels in most women 1 year post CT.