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Table 1 Characteristics of published studies that investigated the diagnostic value of a single measurement of serum activin-A in the diagnosis of pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), ectopic pregnancy (EP), abortion (AB) and intrauterine pregnancy (IUP)

From: Role of activins in embryo implantation and diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: a review

Research group Publication year Study design Number of patients First trimester gestational age Cut-off value AUC Sensitivity Specificity Reference number
Florio et al. 2007 Prospective Observational 536 PUL Not reported 370 pg/mL 1.00 100% 99.6% [36]
Kirk et al. 2009 Prospective Observational 141 PUL Not reported 370 pg/mL 0.51 93% 13% [71]
Florio et al. 2011 Retrospective case–control 30 EP & 30 IUP Between 6 to 8 weeks 430 pg/mL 0.99 96.7% 100% [66]
Rausch et al. 2011 Retrospective case–control 100 EP & 100 IUP EP 45.15 ± 18.95; IUP 48.8 ± 18.34 days 376.15 pg/mL 0.78 80% 72% [22]
Warrick et al. 2012 Retrospective cohort study 89 EP, 100 IUP & 100 AB Median EP 5 weeks (1–10 weeks); AB and IUP 7 weeks (1–10 weeks) < 260 pg/mL 0.62 59.6% 61% [72]
Roghaei et al. 2012 Prospective case–control 100 EP & 100 IUP EP 6.32 ± 1.03 weeks; IUP 6.85 ± 1.82 weeks 504 pg/mL 0.981 97% 93.5% [69]
Daponte et al. 2013 Prospective case–control 30 EP, 30 AB & 33 IUP Between 6 to 8 weeks 504 pg/mL 0.979 87.9% 100% [67]
  1. (AUC = area under the curve by receiver operator characteristics).