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Table 1 Study outcomes involving in vitro supplementation of various antioxidants during ART protocol

From: Utility of antioxidants during assisted reproductive techniques: an evidence based review

Antioxidant Study type Patient population Intervention (therapeutic approach) Control group (daily dose) Outcome/effect of intervention/effect on parameters Reference
Vitamin E Prospective Sperm from normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men 5 mM vitamin E added to cryoprotective media prior to freeze-thaw procedure   1. Improvement in post-thaw motility Kalthur et al. [57]
2. Improvement in DNA integrity
Vitamin E Prospective Sperm from normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters 100 μmol or 200 μmol vitamin E added to cryopreservation media   Improved post-thaw motility of cryopreserved sperm from men with both normal and abnormal sperm parameters Taylor et al. [58]
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) Prospective Sperm from teratozoospermic men (n = 15) Sperm prepared by swim up incubated with 40 μmol alpha-tocopherol added to media x 1 hour   1. Improved sperm motility Keshtgar et al. [59]
2. Increased sperm viability
Vitamin C Prospective Sperm from male volunteers with teratozoospermia (n = 15) Sperm prepared by swim up incubated with 600 μmol vitamin C added to media x 1 hour   1. Reduced MDA levels Fanaei et al. 2014 [60]
2. Reduced DNA damage
3. Improved sperm progressive motility
4. Improved sperm viability
Vitamin C Prospective DNA damaged sperm from infertile men 10 mM ascorbic acid added to semen sample prior to adding cryomedia Unsupplemented cryomedium 1. No change in post-thaw sperm concentration or morphology Branco et al. [61]
2. Reduced number of sperm with cryopreservation-induced DNA damage in infertile men
Vitamin C Prospective Sperm from patients undergoing semen analysis (n = 134) Supplementation of cryomedium with ascorbate or 100 μmol/L AA2G (ascorbic acid-2-glucoside) (stabilized form of ascorbate) Unsupplemented cryomedium Improved post-thaw sperm motility Jenkins et al. [62]
Coenzyme Q 10 Prospective Sperm from asthenozoospermic men (n = 22) HAM’s medium alone, HAM’s medium +1% DMSO, HAM’s medium +5 μM CoQ10 or 50 μM CoQ10 x 24 hours Samples with normal motility sperm (n = 16) 50 μM CoQ10 increased sperm motility of asthenozoopsermic men in vitro Lewin & Lavon [63]
Melatonin Experimental Sperm from both healthy and infertile men (n = 12) Sperm co-incubated with 1 mM melatonin x 30 minutes No treatment 1. Increased percentage of motile and progressively motile cells Ortiz et al. [64]
2. Increased sperm vitality and sperm with normal morphology
Melatonin Experimental Sperm from healthy men (n = 12) Sperm co-incubated with 2 mM melatonin x 120 minutes No treatment 1. Higher percentage of motility and progressive motility du Plessis et al. [65]
2. Increased sperm viability
L-Carnitine Experimental Peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis Frozen metaphase II mouse oocytes and embryos in peritoneal fluid (from endometriosis patients) incubated with 0.6 mg/mL L-Carnitine Peritoneal fluid (from endometriosis patients) only, peritoneal fluid (from tubal ligation patients as control) only, human tubal fluid only, L-carnitine only 1. Improved microtubule and chromosome structure in oocyte Mansour et al. [66]
2. Decreased level of embryo apoptosis
L-Carnitine Experimental Embryo 0.3 mg/mL or 0.6 mg/mL L-Carnitine Embryo culture medium without supplementation 1. Improved percentage of blastocyst development rate with 0.3 mg/mL L-carnitine Abdelrazik et al. [67]
2. Both 0.3 mg/mL and 0.6 mg/mL L-carnitine reduced the blocking effect of actinomycin-D, hydrogen peroxide or tumor necrosis factor alpha and reduced the level of DNA damage