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Table 2 Chemicals and their respective effects on both male and female reproductive function

From: Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

Chemical Possible reproductive effects Sources included
BPA Inhibits binding to androgen receptor, decreased semen quality, erectile dysfunction, chromosomal abnormalities in oocyte, recurrent miscarriage, [132, 140, 144]
Disinfection by-products   
Organochemicals and Pesticides e.g. DDT, DDE, Methoxyclor Change in hormone levels, irregular menstruation, decreased fertility, decreased semen quality, chromosomal abnormalities in sperm, altered histology of testes, decreased libido, fetal loss, miscarriage [132, 138, 142144]
Dioxins Changes in hormone levels, altered puberty, altered start of menarche, endometriosis, decreased fertility, fetal loss [132, 143]
Phthalates Decreased semen quality, oligozoospermia, earlier menarche, altered menstrual cycle, infertility [132, 144]
Solvents Change in hormone levels, decreased semen quality, irregular menstruation, decreased fertility, miscarriage, fetal loss [132]