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Table 1 Major tumor types in gynaecological cancer; genetic mutations and clinical treatments

From: Normal and cancer stem cells of the human female reproductive system

Organ Common tumor type Mutations Treatment
Ovary[12] Ovarian epithelial carcinoma Loss of heterozygosity of PTEN, P53, K-ras, HNPCC mutations. BRCA1 and 2 inactivating mutation. ABCG2 overexpression, β-Catenin expression Early stage: Ovarian surgery. Rarely detected at an early stage, because there is no definitive marker, but a combined immunoassay with six markers [leptin, prolactin, osteopontin, insulin-like growth factor II, macrophage inhibitory factor and CA 125]. In addition, the use of kallikrein or protease M and osteopontin are helpful
Endometrioid, Serous, Clear cells, Transitional, Mucinous and Undifferentiated carcinoma
Endometriosis related tumor   Advanced stage: Platinum based chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy
Adenofibroma, Tubal intraepithelial carcinoma   Novel Agents: Antiangiogenic agents, Tyrosine kinase, SRC and PARP-1 inhibitors.
Germ cell tumor   
Uterus[28] Endometrial carcinoma type I [estrogen] and II [no estrogen related], Adenocarcinoma Sarcoma PTEN inactivation, K-ras, P53 and P16 mutations, Microsatellite instability, HER-2/neu overexpression Early stage: Hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and pelvic and periaortic lymph node dissection. Hormonal therapy with Progesterone in the form of an intrauterine device [IUD], cyclic progesterone or Megace
Myometrium cancer Advanced and/or recurrent stage: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin, paclitaxel and the platinum agents
Leiomyoma [Commonly benign smooth muscle tumor] Adjuvant radiation. Hormonal Therapy with medroxyprogesterone
Endometrial cancer in advanced stage with myometrial invasion Novel Agents: Ephotilones, Mammalian target of Rapamycin [mTOR] Inhibitors, Angiogenesis inhibitors. Myomectomy, and/or advanced stage treatments
Cervix[29] Cervical carcinoma K-ras mutations Carbonic anhydrase Early stage: Laparotomic lymphadenectomy Radical trachelectomy, Hysterectomy. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Local radiotherapy
Squamous-cell, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous and small-cell carcinoma IX [CAIX], CAXII, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, and VEGF upregulation Advanced and/or recurrent stage: Adjuvant Chemotherapy
Deregulated expression of E6 and E7 viral oncogenes Novel Agents:Genome wide expression arrays, MiRNAs, Hyperbaric oxygenation for tumour sensitisation to radiotherapy.
  1. The early or advanced stage depends on the extent of local spread [shown by the tumour stage and tumour size], nodal status and histological subtype. The grading is based on the WHO International Histological Classification of Tumours and Classification of Diseases for Oncology.