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Table 3 Epidemiological, psychyatric/psychologic, gynecological and endocrinological traits of pseudocyetic women from studies discarded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria laid down in the Methods section

From: Endocrinology and physiology of pseudocyesis

N° of women Women’s age (y) Psychiatric/ psychologic traits Gynecological traits LH FSH LH/FSH ratio T E2 P GH PRL Cortisol or DHEAS Response to GnRH or EBa TSH and/or response to TRH Response to dopamine agonistsb or antagonistsc Reference
2 19, and 33 -- Amenorrhea (6 and 8 months, respectively), galactorrhea, and presence of a proliferative endometrium Total gonadotropin activity below the normal limits found in normal cycling women Total gonadotropin activity below normal limits found in normal cycling women -- -- Total estrogen activity below normal range found in normal cycling women -- -- Distinctly elevated -- Marked increase in LH and, to a lesser extent, FSH after GnRH Marked increase in PRL and normal increase in TSH (basal levels of total T4, free T4 and thyroid binding globulins within normal range) -- [52]
6 38.0 ± 2.5c -- Amenorrhea and galactorrhea Slightly elevated but within normal range Within normal range 11.5 -- -- -- -- Markedly elevated -- -- -- -- [53]
6 42.8 ± 6.3c -- Amenorrhea without galactorrhea Markedly elevated Elevated 21.3 -- -- -- -- Within normal range -- -- -- -- [53]
2 40 and 26 No treatment with tranquilizers in the past Amenorrhea (3 and 7 months, respectively), galactorrhea, and recurrence of pseudocyesise Normal Normal 0.6 and 2.1 -- Within the follicular phase range Within the follicular phase range -- Within the normal range -- Marked or normal increase in LH and normal increase in FSH after GnRH Marked increase in PRL, normal increase in TSH and paradoxical increase in GH after TRH (normal basal levels of TSH and T4, and normal fasting blood glucose levels) Blunted increase of GH (PRL was not measured) after apomorphinea in one woman and no response of GH and normal decrease in PRL after bromocriptinea in the other woman [54]
1 16 -- Amenorrhea (5 months) without galactorrhea, and presence of a proliferative endometrium Elevated (within the climacteric range) Within the follicular phase range 2.9 -- Within the follicular phase range Within the follicular phase range -- Within the normal range -- Normal increase in LH and FSH after GnRH; and normal positive feedback of LH after EB Normal PRL and TSH increase after TRH (normal basal levels of TSH) Normal increase in PRL after metoclopramideb [55]
1 17 -- Amenorrhea (8 months) without galactorrhea, and the presence of a proliferative endometrium Within the follicular phase range Within the follicular phase range 0.9 -- Within the follicular phase range Within the follicular phase range -- Within the normal range -- Normal increment in LH and FSH after GnRH, and normal positive feedback of LH after EB Normal PRL and TSH increase after TRH (normal basal levels of TSH) Normal increase of PRL after metoclopramideb [55]
5 19-35 (median 22) Women with a psychiatric condition that precluded informed consent were excluded Amenorrhea (5.5-12.5 months), galactorrhea (3 women), and hirsutism (3 women, one of them with clitoromegaly) Below the upper normal limit (<20 IU/L) with either low-normal or definitely low pulse amplitudes (early-follicular phase) Within the follicular phase range 1.2 Elevated in 3 women. Another women with mildly elevated FAIf Within the early-follicular range Within the early-follicular range. -- Normal levels with greater release during sleep than during daytime (1 women displayed high PRL levels) -- -- -- -- [56]
9 24.9 ± 2.2d -- Amenorrhea (3–12 months) and galactorrhea (8 women) Within the follicular phase range Within the follicular phase range 1.1 -- 6 women with lower levels than the follicular phase range 2 women with luteal phase levels 5 women exhibited impaired GH responses to hypoglycemia (4 of them also displayed E2 deficiency) Within follicular phase range Normal responses of cortisol to hypoglycemia (peak responses exceeded 600 nmol/L) 4 women with exaggerated LH response (2 of them also with exaggerated FSH response) after GnRH Normal PRL and TSH increase after TRH (1, 1 and 2 women had exaggerated PRL, GH and TSH responses, respectively) Decrease in PRL. In 4 women, no increase in GH after L-DOPAa (3 of these women displayed also impaired GH response to hypoglycemia) [57]
  1. aEstradiol benzoate.
  2. bDopamine agonist.
  3. cDopamine antagonist.
  4. dMean ± SEM.
  5. eThis was the 40-year-old woman with 3 months of amenorrhea and a LH: FSH ratio of 0.6 [the same woman analyzed by Tulandi et al. [35] (see Table 2)].
  6. fFree androgen index.