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Table 4 A summary of the results from the present study and previous reports for common endometrial secretions observed to be affected by hCG

From: Profiles of cytokines secreted by isolated human endometrial cells under the influence of chorionic gonadotropin during the window of embryo implantation

Name Observation in the present study; affected cell culture type Observation in the previous studies; experimental model [Reference] Putative function in implantation process [Reference]
CCL2 Increase: epithelial HEnC No change; mixed endometrial cells1[45] Regulation of angiogenic and immunotolerant environment [57, 58]
CXCL10 Increase; mixed HEnC Increase; HEEC1[14] Regulation of NK cell recruitment and angiogenesis [59, 60]
FGF2 Increase; stromal HEnC and mixed HEnC Increase; HEEC1[14] Regulates endometrial stromal cell proliferation and receptivity and embryo growth, attachment and trophoblast function [61, 62]
GMCSF Increase; stromal HEnC and mixed HEnC Increase; HEEC1[14] Regulates endometrial stromal cells, leukocytes and capillaries along with embryotropic action [34, 53, 63]
IL-1b Increase; stromal HEnC and mixed HEnC Increase; intrauterine secretion2[39] Mediates endometrial preparation for implantation [36, 58]
No change; mixed endometrial cells1[45]
Increase; endometrial secretion aspiration3[64]
IL-6 Increase; epithelial HEnC Decrease; stromal HEnC and mixed HEnC Increase; intrauterine secretion2[39] Regulates hCG secretion by trophoblast cells and endometrial development [36, 65, 66]
Increase; mixed endometrial cells1[67]
Decrease; HEEC1[7]
No change; HEEC1[14]
IL-12 Decrease (p40); epithelial HEnC Endometrial secretion aspiration3[64] Regulates NK cell function and mediates cell mediated immunity [68]
Increase (p70); mixed HEnC
IL-17 Increase; stromal HEnC Increase; endometrial secretion aspiration3[64] Potentially regulates chemokines and cytokines networks [69]
LIF Increase; epithelial HEnC and mixed HEnC No change; mixed endometrial cells1[67] Supports endometrial receptivity and embryo development [36]
Increase; intrauterine secretion2[39]
Increase; HEEC1[7, 14]
MCSF Decrease; epithelial HEnC and mixed HEnC Decrease; intrauterine secretion2[39] Paracrine regulation of stromal decidualization under progesterone dominance [70, 71]
MIF Increase; epithelial HEnC and mixed HEnC Increase; endomerial stromal cells1[9] Paracrine regulation of immunomodulation, angiogenesis and growth [47, 72]
Decrease; stromal HEnC
TNF Increase; mixed HEnC Increase; mixed endometrial cells1[64] Regulates balance of cytokine, chemokines and growth factors towards endometrial and embryo development [73, 74]
Increase; endometrial secretion aspiration3[39]
VEGF Increase; stromal HEnC and mixed HEnC Increase; intrauterine secretion2[39] Regulates endometrial angiogenesis, permeability receptivity and embryo development [36, 75, 76]
Increase; HEEC1[7, 14, 77]
Increase; mixed endometrial cells1[78]
Increase; epithelial HEnC [25]
  1. HEnC, endometrial cells in primary culture on collagen biomatrix. HEEC, isolated human endometrial epithelial cells. HEExC, human endometrial explant culture.
  2. 1Conventional primary culture.
  3. 2Intrauterine microdialysis. 3endometrial secretion aspired on the day of embryo transfer in stimulated cycle in IVF-ET and compared with that in natural cycle.