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Table 1 Working model of age-associated changes of ovary-committed bone marrow cells (OC-BMC) and hormonal signals (LH/hCG & E2) required for the initiation & resumption of oogenesis in human ovaries

From: Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

Period of life OC-BMC3 LH/hCG4 E25 Oogenesis
First trimester - midpregnancy yes yes yes yes6
Last trimester - newborn yes no yes no 6
Postnatal - menarche yes no no no 7
The prime reproductive period 1 yes yes yes yes6
Premenopause 2 no yes yes no 7
Postmenopause no yes no no 6
  1. 1 From menarche till 38 +/-2 years of age.
  2. 2 From 38+/-2 years till menopause.
  3. 3 MDC & T cells with commitment for stimulation of OSC to germ cell transformation.
  4. 4 Levels corresponding to the mid cycle LH peak, or more (hCG levels should be 10x more, since it has only a 10% affinity to the LH receptor compared to that of LH - see Ref. [124]).
  5. 5 Levels corresponding to the preovulatory E2 peak, or more.
  6. 6 Confirmed.
  7. 7 Predicted.
  8. Adapted from [100] with permission, © Humana Press Inc.