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Table 2 Results of attempts to induce oviposition in amphibians other than Xenopus with hCG

From: Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae)

Species Priming or co-administered agent hCG [dose or source]* Oviposition** References
Bufo americanus   Human pregnant urine None [2]
B. americanus No priming 100 IU, Day 1 None [38]
No priming 400-1000 IU, Day 1 about 60%, Day 2
Priming Day −2 [LH 50 ug, or LHRH 50 ug, or eCG 50 IU, or hCG 50 IU] 500 IU, Day 1 ≤ 60%, Day 2
B. arenarum   Human pregnant urine None [2]
B. baxteri 4.0 ug LHRHa, Day 1 [no priming] 500 IU, Day 1 None [35]
0.8 ug LHRHa, Day −4 100 IU, Day −4 70%, Day 1-2
4.0 ug LHRHa, Day 1 500 IU, Day 1
[total = 600 IU]
4.0 ug LHRHa, Day −6 500 IU, Day −6 80%, Day 1-2
0.8 ug LHRHa, Day −4 100 IU, Day −4
4.0 ug LHRHa, Day 1 500 IU, Day 1
[total = 1100 IU]
B. calamita   Human pregnant urine None [2]
B. fowleri   Human pregnant urine + [2]
B. fowleri 60 ug LHRHa, 5 mg progesterone, 0.25 mg pimozide, Day 1 500 IU, Day 1 85%, Day 1-2 [39]
4 ug LHRHa, Day −1 500 IU, Day −1 29%, Day 1-2
4 ug LHRHa, Day 1 500 IU, Day 1
[total = 1000 IU]
B. vulgaris   Human pregnant urine None [2]
Eleutherodactylus coqui   25-140 IU, Day 1 None [40]
165-200 IU, Day 1 Day 2, weak response (2/6 females)
Hyla aurea Pregnant mare serum - + [2]
Litoria aurea 5 ug LHRHa, Day −4.5 300 IU, Day 1 Weak; 1% of normal egg release (2/5 females) [41]
5 ug LHRHa, Day −1.5
10 ug LHRHa, Day −0.5
20 ug LHRHa, Day 1
Litoria moorei No benefit of including progesterone 100-200 IU, Day −2 Weak; few eggs in 1/14 females [41]
500–750 IU, Day 1
Litoria raniformis 10 ug LHRHa, Day −4 500 IU, Day −4 None [42]
10 ug LHRHa, Day −2 500 IU, Day −2
10 ug LHRHa, Day 1 500 IU, Day 1
Rana catesbeiana   Human pregnant urine + [2]
R. catesbeiana Pregnant mare serum - + [2]
R. clamitans   Human pregnant urine None [2]
R. temporaria   Human pregnant urine None [2]
R. esculenta   Human pregnant urine None [2]
R. pipiens   Human pregnant urine None [2]
R. pipiens Pregnant mare serum - None [2]
R. sevosa 3-4 ug LHRH, Day −3 100 IU, Day −3 + [37]
15–20 ug LHRH, Day 1 500 IU, Day 1
R. vulgaris   Human pregnant urine None [2]
Urodeles     
Ambystoma tigrinum   Human pregnant urine + [2]
Triturus pyrrogaster   Human pregnant urine + [2]
T. torosus; Pregnant mare serum - None [2]
T. similans;
T. rivularis
T. viridescens   Human pregnant urine + [2]
  1. Results of attempts to induce oviposition utilising hCG administration in amphibian species other than Xenopus with, or without, priming with hCG or other agents. * Day of final hCG injection expressed as Day 1, with administration of compounds on days prior to Day 1 expressed as negative values (to facilitate comparison between studies listed in Tables 1 and 2); hCG administered as either reconstituted or synthetic hCG (dose in IU) or as direct injection of pregnant human urine (dose unknown). ** Oviposition: “+” = oviposition recorded; “None” = no oviposition recorded. Data from [2] for PMSG only inductions (no hCG) for some Rana species also shown. Species names are from original papers, however, some have since been renamed e.g. Rana pipiens now Lithobates pipiens by some [43].