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Table 4 The biological functions of hCG during pregnancy

From: hCG, the wonder of today's science

Function References
A. hCG  
1. Promotion of corpus luteal progesterone production [6, 911, 88]
2. Angiogenesis of uterine vasculature [1926]
3. Cytotrophoblast differentiation [18, 61]
4. Immuno-suppression and blockage of phagocytosis of invading trophoblast cells [6267, 89]
5. Growth of uterus in line with fetal growth [68, 69]
6. Quiescence of uterine muscle contraction [68, 7072]
7. Promotion of growth of fetal organs [3032, 7376]
8. Umbilical cord growth and development [2732]
9. Blastocysts signals uterine decidua prior to invasion regarding pending implantation [7780]
10. hCG in sperm and receptors found in fallopian tubes suggesting pre-pregnancy communication [8186]
11. hCG receptors in hippocampus and brain stem, may cause nausea and vomiting in pregnancy [90, 91]
B. Hyperglycosylated hCG  
1. Stimulates implantation by invasion of cytotrophoblast cells as occurs at implantation of pregnancy [1316]
2. Stimulates growth of placenta by promoting growth of cytotrophoblast cells [13, 14, 16, 17]
C. hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG together  
1. Drives hemochorial placentation [87]