Effect of resveratrol on folliculogenesis-related molecules in cultured rat GCs. (A-D) Effect of resveratrol on mRNA levels of (A) FSH-R, (B) LH-R, (C) StAR and (D) P450arom was investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA level of the untreated control was arbitrarily set at 1.0, and that of the treatment group was estimated relative to the control value. Results are shown as the mean ± SEM (bars) of three independent experiments. ** p < 0.01 vs. control. (E) Effect of resveratrol on protein levels of StAR and P450arom was investigated by Western blot. Resveratrol treatment resulted in an increased expression of StAR, LH-R, and P450arom, and the results were consistent with those of quantitative real time RT-PCR. Three independent experiments were performed and a representative result is shown. (F) Effect of resveratrol on P4 secretion by rat granulosa cells. P4 secretion was measured by EIA protocol in culture medium of granulosa cells after 24 to 48 h of culture in DMEM/F-11 medium in the presence of resveratrol (100 μM). The data are expressed as the amount of steroids (pg/ml) secreted. The results, expressed as means ± SEM, are representative of three to four independent cultures with each condition in quadruplet.