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Table 1 Regulatory elements in sex determination/dosage compensation

From: Sex determination strategies in 2012: towards a common regulatory model?

Species Worms Insects Reptiles Amphibians Fish Birds Mammals
Epigenetic phenomena unknown alternative splicing unknown unknown unknown unknown X inactivation
Primary sex determination cellular all tissues gonad gonad gonad all tissues gonad
Role of sex steroids unclear unclear sex det. sex diff. sex diff. sex diff. sex diff.
Role of Temperature unclear TSD (rare) TSD TSD TSD none none
Sex chromosomes X, W X(Y) ZZ/ZW ZZ/ZW
XX/XY
ZZ/ZW (Xenopus) XX/XY
ZZ/ZW
ZZ/ZW XX/XY
Sex determining gene(s) her-1, fem, tra SXL no DM-W DMY DMRT1 SRY
  1. Major regulatory elements in sex determination systems across the animal kingdom. Extensive similarities are noted even among distant species. Sex det: sex determination, Sex diff: Sex differentiation TSD: temperature-sensitive sex determination