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Table 4 Lifestyle factors (BMI, age, caffeine consumption, sexual behavior, smoking and stress linked to analyzed semen parameters

From: The combination matters - distinct impact of lifestyle factors on sperm quality: a study on semen analysis of 1683 patients according to MSOME criteria

  Number of patients Ejaculation volume (ml/semen sample) Sperm concen-tration Mio/ml TSC Mio/ sample Motility MSOME
       Grade a Grade b Grade c Grade d Class I Class II Class III
BMI (kg/m 2 ) <25 692 2.8 (1.4) 24.3 (31.2) 63.2 (94.7) 5.1 (7.9) 32.8 (17.6) 18.6 (14.3) 43.5 a (20.6) 6.4 (6.6) 43.3 (14.2) 50.3 (17.8)
  >25 986 2.6 (1.5) 22.5 (26.3) 55.2 (90.8) 4.7 (7.9) 31.4 (17.8) 17.7 (13.9) 46.2 (20.7) 5.8 (6.1) 43.2 (14.6) 51 (17.9)
Age (years) <50 1598 2.7 (1.5) c 23.5 (29.6) 59.8 (94.7) b 5.0 (7.9) b 32.2 (17.7) b 18,2 (14.1) 44.6 c (20.6) 6.1 (6.4) 43.2 (14.5) 50.7 (17.9)
  >50 85 2.0 (1.2) 22.1 (19.3) 41.7 (43.5) 2.9 (6.9) 26.7 (16.5) 17.7 (12.3) 52.7 (20.4) 5.4 (5.1) 44.8 (12.5) 49.8 (15.7)
Coffee cups/day <3 1479 2.7 (1.5) 23.1 (28.9) 58 (91.2) 4.9 (7.9) 32.1 (17.8) 17.9 (14.1) 45.1 (20.6) 6.2 (6.4) 43 (14.3) 50.8 (17.8)
  >3 204 2.6 (1.5) 25.8 (31.5) 65.1 (104.1) 4.3 (8.1) 30.9 (16.7) 18.2 (12.9) 46.6 (21.4) 5.5 (5.6) 45.3 (15.2) 49.2 (18.0)
Abstinence period (days) <2 649 2.2 b (1.2) 23.2 (33.2) 48.7 c (111.9) 4.8 (7.9) 31.4 (18.4) 18.8 (14.9) 45.0 (20.8) 6.4 (6.5) 42.8 (14.5) 50.8 (18.3)
  >2 1033 3 (1.5) 23.7 (26.4) 65.3 (78.1) 4.9 (7.9) 32.3 (17.3) 17.4 (13.4) 45.4 (20.6) 5.8 (6.2) 43.5 (14.3) 50.7 (17.5)
Ejaculation frequency times/month >4 1519 2.7 (1.4) 23.4 (29.8) 58.4 (95.3) 4.9 (8.0) 32.2 (17.6) 18 (14) 44.9 (20.4) 6.2 (6.4) a 43.3 (14.5) 50.5 (18.0)
  <4 140 2.9 (1.6) 23.5 (23.5) 63.5 (66.9) 4.7 (7.0) 30.3 (18.5) 17.8 (14.8) 47.2 (22.9) 5.1 (5.5) 43.1 (13.2) 51.8 (15.9)
Alcohol intake No 282 2.8 (1.4) 21.3 57.4 5.0 32.7 16.0 46.3 5.7 43.0 51.3
  occasionally 1127 2.7 (1.4) 23.5 59.3 4.7 32.0 18.4 44.9 6.1 43.1 50.8
  frequent 164 2.7 26.7 61.9 5.0 32.3 18.2 44.5 6.3 45.0 48.7
Smoking No/ occasionally 1380 2.7 23.5 59.8 4.8 31.9 17.9 45.4 6.1 42.9 b 51.0 a
  frequent 199 2.5 22.5 54.7 5.1 33.7 16.8 44.4 6.1 45.7 48.2
Stress No 1163 2.7 23.0 58.0 4.6 a 31.4 b 18.1 b 45.9 5.9 a 42.6 b 51.5 b
  Yes 431 2.7 24.4 62.5 5.5 34.1 17.2 43.2 6.6 45.0 48.4
  1. BMI: body mass index; TSC: total sperm count; standard deviation is given in brackets, a P value <0.05; b P value < 0.005; c P value < 0.001.