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Table 2 Summary of observations on normal (NP) and abnormal placentae (AP) and derived trophoblast cultures: ERα expression in vivo and in vitro, and formation of large syncytial aggregates in late trophoblast cultures under PhR+, PhR-/E2- and PhR-/E2+ conditions.

From: Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-alpha protein in normal and abnormal term placentae and stimulation of trophoblast differentiation by estradiol

  Condition NP AP
ERα expression in vivo + -
  in vitro + +
Large syncytial aggregates PhR+ + -
  PhR-/E2- - -
  PhR-/E2+ ++* +
  1. * Extra large syncytial aggregates