Molecular patterns of sex determination in the animal kingdom: a comparative study of the biology of reproduction
© Manolakou et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 11 July 2006
Accepted: 13 November 2006
Published: 13 November 2006
Determining sexual fate is an integral part of reproduction, used as a means to enrich the genome. A variety of such regulatory mechanisms have been described so far and some of the more extensively studied ones are being discussed.
For the insect order of Hymenoptera, the choice lies between uniparental haploid males and biparental diploid females, originating from unfertilized and fertilized eggs accordingly. This mechanism is also known as single-locus complementary sex determination (slCSD). On the other hand, for Dipterans and Drosophila melanogaster, sex is determined by the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes and the sex switching gene, sxl. Another model organism whose sex depends on the X:A ratio, Caenorhabditis elegans, has furthermore to provide for the brief period of spermatogenesis in hermaphrodites (XX) without the benefit of the "male" genes of the sex determination pathway.
Many reptiles have no discernible sex determining genes. Their sexual fate is determined by the temperature of the environment during the thermosensitive period (TSP) of incubation, which regulates aromatase activity. Variable patterns of sex determination apply in fish and amphibians. In birds, while sex chromosomes do exist, females are the heterogametic (ZW) and males the homogametic sex (ZZ). However, we have yet to decipher which of the two (Z or W) is responsible for the choice between males and females.
In mammals, sex determination is based on the presence of two identical (XX) or distinct (XY) gonosomes. This is believed to be the result of a lengthy evolutionary process, emerging from a common ancestral autosomal pair. Indeed, X and Y present different levels of homology in various mammals, supporting the argument of a gradual structural differentiation starting around the SRY region. The latter initiates a gene cascade that results in the formation of a male. Regulation of sex steroid production is also a major result of these genetic interactions. Similar observations have been described not only in mammals, but also in other vertebrates, emphasizing the need for further study of both normal hormonal regulators of sexual phenotype and patterns of epigenetic/environmental disruption.
Sex determination is an integral part of reproduction and an essential process for the evolvement and enrichment of the genome. It has thus been the subject of many studies in reference to species across the entire animal kingdom. From insects to mammals, there is much to learn from the many mechanisms employed to determine sexual fate. This is no lost cause, since the study of sex determination and differentiation is only the natural expansion of comparative biology and reproductive physiology in the modern, molecular Era. Interestingly, data so far accumulated by a variety of model organisms has shown a relative economy in the molecular regulation of sex determination. More specifically, sex determination has so far proven to be a result of one of the following three mechanisms:
a) Environmental action on the embryo at a crucial stage of development. To the extent that this interaction is associated with temperature alterations, the process is also described as temperature-dependent sex determination and the developmental stage of sex determination is referred to as the thermosensitive period (TSP). This mechanism is mainly observed in reptiles and fish.
b) Genetic action, when at least one specific gene is considered to be the central regulator in a cascade of events leading to the determination of sexual phenotype. This mechanism is already known to apply in the case of several animals, including invertebrates (insects, worms) and amphibians. Moreover, it is a proposed regulatory mechanism for several species, whose study has so far been limited or led to inconclusive data as to the attempt to detect a single, specific, sex-determining gene.
c) The presence of distinct sex chromosomes or gonosomes. The identical pair may be present in both males (birds) and females (mammals) and their major sex-determining gene may be either known (e.g. mammalian SRY) or still suspected [1–3].
Although sex determination has been suggested to promote specific functions at a universal level, such as selective cell proliferation (Mittwoch) or steroid hormone accumulation (Howard), this issue remains debatable [1, 4]. What is even more intriguing is the fact that the conservation of relatively limited regulatory patterns in sex determination may suggest the presence of a single general regulatory scheme, at least in vertebrates, potentially involving or incorporating both hormonal elements and dosage compensation epigenetic regulatory phenomena, whenever necessary . Such a discovery would bear great implications for comparative biology studies and might also allow important applications in the field of reproductive endocrinology. The study of more model organisms is a necessity to investigate this hypothesis and the consolidation of both recent and classic data from the relevant research work may significantly facilitate this discussion. This essay is dedicated to the brief and yet compact presentation of some of the better studied animal models of sex determination, in an attempt to approach that knowledge.
In honeybees, for example, the sex locus has recently been identified as the csd (complementary sex determiner) gene that encodes an SR protein (Arginine-Serine rich protein) . The initial observation that csd function was required only in females and that its product is nonfunctional when derived from only one allele  was followed by the suggestion of three possible models. First, that different allelic CSD proteins form active heterodimers. Second, that CSD proteins derived from the same allele form homomers, with two homomer species in females and one in males. And third, that merely the existence of different alleles is required in females for csd to complete its function .
Dipterans (Drosophila melanogaster)
Nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans)
Another model organism that uses a single gene switch and the subsequent hierarchy of gene pathways to determine sex is the nematode C.elegans. Here again the animal's sexual fate depends on the X:A ratio, and there isn't even a Y chromosome present in males to later on interfere with the germline. However, C.elegans worms are special in that the choice lies between males with one X chromosome and hermaphrodites with two.
The different species of reptiles present a considerable variety of sex determination patterns. For instance, most snakes possess a ZZ/ZW pattern of sex chromosomes, similar to that discussed later as the model mechanism for sex determination in birds. The study of lizards has led to more complex findings, with different species having either a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome pair or a XX/XY system, similar to that observed in mammals [22, 23].
On the other hand, many species of reptiles, including most terrestrial turtles and all crocodilians and sea turtles examined to this date, have no discernible sex chromosomes, nor is their sex determined by the presence or absence of specific genes. In these organisms, it is the temperature of the environment in a specific period of incubation that can determine whether the animal in question will turn into a male or a female [24, 25].
Indeed, studies have shown that there seem to be no significant differences in the expression of sex-related genes. Instead, there is a specific period of incubation, which is generally considered to lie in the middle third of development, during which the temperature of the eggs controls quite accurately their sexual fate. This particular period is also known as the thermosensitive period (TSP).
Interestingly, a number of genes originally described as part of the genetic regulation of sex development in men and other mammals have also been detected in reptiles. For instance, in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, several genes so far related to mammalian sex determination are expressed, including DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal 1), DMRT1 (doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) and SOX9 (SRY related HMG box 9). In particular, DAX1 is a known regulator of gonadal development in mice and other mammals, considered to be an "anti-testis" gene, although this may approach may prove to be too simplified. In reptiles, the gene is not differentially expressed in response to temperature variation during the TSP, therefore, its role in reptile sex determination is unclear. The gene is also expressed in crocodilians with temperature-dependent sex determination, such as Alligator mississippiensis. Whether this gene could indeed be a target for androgen or estrogen-related actions following the TSP remains unknown. As far as DMRT1 is concerned, the gene was initially related to sex determination in D. melanogaster, due to the presence of a domain compatible to the sex determinant gene DSX. Subsequent research, however, has proven the gene's expression in several other species as well, including birds, fish and reptiles. In alligators, such as A. mississippiensis, the gene is expressed exclusively in the gonads of males. Moreover, its expression appears to precede that of SOX9, another testis-specific gene conserved in a vast number of species, ranging from reptiles to mammals. The latter gene is originally expressed in the bipotential gonad of reptile embryos, but following the TSP, it remains active only in males, making it a candidate gene for sex steroid-induced regulation. In alligators, SOX9 is also related to increased AMH (Anti-Müllerian Hormone) levels, but, contrary to mammals, AMH induction chronologically precedes that of SOX9 [3, 23]. In the case of lizards, an attempt has also been made to examine sexual dimorphism in the brain. The first results from these experimental series show distinct differences in estrogen receptor expression and progesterone concentrations in specific areas of the central nervous system, a finding that may imply that aromatase regulation is only the first step in a sequence of several more complex sex-specific/dimorphic genetic phenomena that still remain to be examined .
Finally, it has recently been suggested that aromatase may also be regulated by secondary parameters, other than temperature. This has been described for instace, in the case of Prostaglandin E2, which appears to be associated with increased aromatase action . Immunological reactions and cytokine levels may also be important. The latter has led to clinical applications in humans, with the attempt to treat oncological patients with hormone-sensitive cancer, with selective Interleukin-6 pharmaceutical modulators, thus indirectily aiming at aromatase suppression .
Female (in accordance with genotype)
Female OR male (in discordance with genotype)
Male OR female (in discordance with genotype)
Female (in accordance with genotype)
In particular, male or female heterogamety has been described in various species of anurans and urodeles. Sex chromosomes of various types may be present, following both the XY/XX and WZ/ZZ pattern that usually apply to mammals and birds, respectively. The exact mechanism by which temperature regulates sex determination in amphibians is not yet deciphered, but it doesn't seem to apply to the TSP-aromatase regulation model of reptiles. Hormonal action may also act in the process of acquisition of sexual phenotype, either independently or in conjunction with temperature variation .
Gene studies in amphibian sex determination are not as extensive as in other animal models. Of the various genes so far associated with sex determination in other species, amphibians appear to express DMRT1. However, it is not yet clear whether this is a downstream product in the sex differentiation cascade or a factor with a more central role in sex determination [3, 31, 32].
There are numerous species of fish in the animal kingdom, with estimations as to their current number reaching a mean price of 25.000. As one may easily perceive, among such a variety of living organisms, research has been focused on relatively few, specific model organisms, each of which has been considered representative of the reproductive physiology of several other closely related species. Among the mechanisms observed, one may refer to a) the presence of true hermaphrodites, a strategy usually associated with lower evolutionary levels (e.g. the previously described model of invertebrates-nematodes) b)temperature-dependent sex determination, with a process similar to the one known to be characteristic of most reptiles and c) sex chromosomes. The latter may follow either the XY/XX or the ZW/ZZ pattern [3, 33].
Contrary to mammals, the sex determining genes have not yet been described in fish, although some candidacies have been proposed. It might also be possible that, instead of a common, uniform gene pattern for all fish, different genes will be proven to be the major sex determinants in every species. According to some researchers, it might also be possible to assume a number of competing genes in every species, with environmental and/or hormonal parameters regulating their relative priority in sex determination in every birth . Of the various model organisms available for study, we will limit our reference to four characteristic examples, namely the atlantic salmon, the platyfish, the medaka and the zebra fish.
The atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was, until recently, an organism within unknown genetic sex determinants. However, recent data has detected the candidate sex-determining locus of this species as part of chromosome 2. For this reason, this large metacentric chromosome is now regarded as the sex chromosome of this species. Research has now turned to the detailed study of the region, in an attempt to identify the exact position and structure of the single sex-determining gene, which has been proposed to exist within the aforementioned locus .
The platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus)'s genome may contain any of three sex chromosomes, namely X, Y and W. This allows significantly more combinations in the population than those observed in other species, applying to the "traditional" principle of only two sex chromosome types available (ZW and XY pairs, respectively). Of all the combinations, WX, WY and XX develop as females, while XY and YY become males. No specific sex-determining gene has been described so far, although the W chromosome is considered a major candidate for its position, since its presence coincides with female phenotype regardless of the type of the second sex chromosome. However, some genes, previously described in other species and associated to reproductive physiology and development, are also found in this and other fish species. These include SOX family members, such as SOX9 and DMRT1. On the other hand, classical hormonal regulators of sex differentiation, such as AMH have not yet been identified in fish [3, 33].
DMRT1 has been been shown to be particularly important for sex determination in the teleost medaka, Oryzias latipes. The sex determining system of the medaka is male heterogametic, i.e. it follows the XX/XY principle known from mammalian reproduction. Although some similarities with genes of the mammalian sex chromosomes may exist, the major sex determinant of mammals, i.e. SRY (sex determining region of the Y chromosome) is missing. Consequently, another, previously unknown, sex-determining gene must be present in the medaka genome. Indeed, in the Y chromosome of the fish a new gene has been detected, bearing six exons and a DM domain. The latter is a major characteristic of genes involved in sex determination in invertebrates, such as doublesex and mab3 in D.melanogaster and C.elegans, respectively. This new gene was named DMY (DM domain of the Y chromosome) and it is homologous to DMRT1 gene, which is conserved in various species. Although a lot of information is still missing, it appears that in the male, DMY and DMRT1 operate in procession as strong determinants of gonadal development. In the female, the role of aromatase is once again central, although its induction, in this case, may be a genetic rather than temperature-related event. Other genes' expression has also been detected exclusively in females, such as FIGa (factor in the germ line a), but their correlation with aromatase induction remains to be proven (see Figure 13) .
Finally, sex determination in the zebra fish is considered to be a genetic phenomenon, but the details of the process are still under examination. Of particular interest are recent data, proving the expression of two sex-related genes in the zebra fish [33, 36, 37]. These are a) vasa, a gene family expressed exclusively in the gonads of several species, including D.melanogaster, mice and fish and b) FtzF1 (fushi tarazu factor 1), a gene originally described in Drosophila and nkown to encode the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) in mammals, thus regulating sex steroid production [33, 36].
Next, approaching birds, we begin to tread on more familiar ground, as once again we return to sex chromosomes. In birds however, females are the heterogametic sex, carrying one copy of each of the so called Z and W sex chromosomes, whereas males are homogametic ZZ. The Z and W chromosomes have no relation to the mammalian X and Y, and in fact seem to have evolved from different pairs of autosomes. And this is part of the reason we are not yet certain which of the two carries the genetic trigger for sex determination [38, 39].
To this day, there are two major theories under investigation. Sex may depend on Z chromosome dosage, according to the example of Drosophila melanogaster and C.elegans. One candidate gene for this theory is the DMRT1, which is located on Z chromosomes, escapes dosage compensation and is expressed specifically in the gonads, and is thus capable of linking the number of Z chromosomes with gonadal differentiation [40, 41].
One way to discern between the two theories would be to look into different combinations of Z and W chromosomes. Indeed, scientists have studied ZW aneuploidy in an effort to better understand how things work. It turns out that ZZZ animals develop testes but are infertile, ZWW animals die early in embryonic development, but ZZW combinations manifest as intersexual: the animals appear female on hatching, but slowly turn into males at sexual maturity. It is still possible, thus, that a combination of the above is in fact applied [40, 42].
Different aspects of sex differentiation in marsupials
Y chromosome (testes)
No Y chromosome (absence of testes)
One X chromosome (scrotum)
Male animals with scrotum and testes
Animals without testes and an empty scrotum instead of a pouch
Two X chromosomes (pouch and mammary glands)
Animals with testes and a pouch with mammary glands instead of scrotum
Female animals with a pouch and mammary glands
From monotremes to eutherian mammals
Intriguing as the marsupial X and Y chromosomes may be, it appears that they also exhibit close similarities to those encountered in man, as well as practically every other mammalian species. This observation has lead to the hypothesis of a common origin for the gonosomes of all current mammals. In an attempt to verify this theory, recent research related to sex determination in man has shifted its focus on the application of comparative genetics for different sex-specific sequences, both codal and non-codal, aiming to unravel the mystery of X and Y evolution [46, 47]. It is important to note that the concept of a common ancestry for sex chromosomes has been originally proposed by S.Ohno as early as the 1960s and it was based on comparative observations on mammalian reproductive biology and gonadal physiology . In fact, one of the authors (R.A.) has also had the fortune to contribute to the latter research as a member of the College de France research group, under the direct supervision of the late Professor Alfred Jost .
The evolutionary model proposed by Page, Jegalian and Lahn in 1999  suggests that more than 400 million years ago (i.e. before the evolution of the mammalian common ancestral line, roughly 300 million years ago), the common ancestor of modern reptiles and mammals retained an intact pair of autosomal, homologous genes instead of the X and Y. At the time, the two chromosomes where identical, sharing the same content and participating in autosomal recombination during the first meiotic division.
In the following evolutionary stage, it seems that failure in recombination during meiosis resulted in the reversal of part of one of the chromosomes (the future Y). This process inhibited further recombination attempts in the inverted region, since the presence of homologous sequences in opposite positions of the two chromosomes is a prerequisite for recombination. In future generations, this mistake wasn't repaired, thus instituting a permanent non-recombining area in the genome. As further failures in recombination followed, with a constant nucleotide loss in the unstable chromosome (Y), homology between the two chromosomes gradually decreased, until finally it was limited in the distant tips of the X and Y .
The first region where recombination failure must have occurred was the region of the SRY gene, which has since initiated a new role for genes of the Y chromosome, i.e. sex determination and sexual trait differentiation. This shift in gene function was the result of a long process of sequence variation, both in the encoding area and its regulatory elements. This evolutionary stage is placed 240–320 million years ago, an era consistent with the appearance of the ancestor of monotreme mammals (300 million years ago), animals known indeed to carry the SRY gene and only a limited area around it, where recombination between X and Y is not possible, contrary to the rest of their sequences .
A second stage in the formation of the X and Y is also attributed to a recombination failure, about 130–170 million years ago. At this time, the united mammalian line was separated in two others, namely the marsupial and placental lines.
As a result of the first two waves of X and Y differentiation discussed so far, the ability to estimate and regulate the level of gene expression in mammals was significantly hindered, since the processes of failed recombination, genomic reversal and deletion had already resulted in a significant loss of the sequences of the initial Y chromosome, contrary to the relatively intact X. In an attempt for proper dosage compensation between the two sexes, mammals developed the process of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) . In effect, this process evolved in the course of time and in parallel with the continuous alteration in X and Y morphology and structure [55, 56]. It is also possible that, initially, simpler mechanisms of dosage compensation where applied, such as the hyper-expression of the genes in the single X chromosome of males, as is the case in the modern fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster.
A classic example of this gradual evolution of the dosage compensation strategies and, particularly, X inactivation, refers to the origin of LINE1 (long interspersed nuclear elements 1) sequences. These sequences interact with XIST (X inactivation specific transcript) RNA and, possibly other transitory proteins, forming a three-dimensional pattern that promotes gene silencing in the spreading stage of XCI. In placental mammals, LINE1 sequences have multiplied and spread throughout the Y chromosome, about 100-60 million years ago. This estimation suggests that the LINE1 sequences, an element necessary for stable XCI have evolved a long time after the separation of marsupials and placental mammals. Indeed, experimental data suggests that only the latter are capable of stable XCI, while the first possess an imprinted transient mechanism, lacking maintenance processes (e.g. methylation) .
Finally, a third stage in X-Y evolution is placed 80 to 130 million years ago and a final one 30 to 50 million years ago, coinciding with primate initial appearance. As in previous stages, failure in recombination is once again considered the promoter for these steps in the formation of the current X and Y.
A number of researchers focusing in comparative genomic studies and, especially, point mutations, attempt to clarify the exact evolutionary pattern for the gonosomes of every mammalian species. The addition of experimental data improves the estimation of the exact separation time for the ancestors of the major types of species on the earth, allowing the recognition of further sub-stages in the main pattern that has already been described. For instance, in the case of the X and Y, the initial recombination failure stage has been challenged, with some researchers proposing its substitution by two distinct phases, 350-290 and 290-230 million years ago . In this case, it would be possible to assume a common origin for the gonosomes of mammals, reptiles and birds, preceding all other steps in the X-Y genomic evolution. However, no such procedure has been proven to this day. On the other hand, the classic concept of a common history for all mammal gonosomes and a completely discrete pattern for Z/W evolution in birds remains the most widely accepted in current evolutionary genetics.
The analysis of chromosome Y nucleotide sequence was an especially difficult task for the research teams involved in the Human Genome Project. According to a recent report (Skaletsky et al 2003), about 95% of the Y chromosome is now defined as the male specific region of the Y chromosome or MSY, for short. This area coincides with the previously described as non-recombining region of the Y chromosome or NRY. This change in terminology is not only aiming to emphasize the importance of the region for male sex determination, as it includes the SRY gene and its regulatory and downstream acting agents, but also attempting to correct a chronic misunderstanding, since this area is in fact participating in recombination. Interestingly, the latter doesn't involve the X, since no homology is present, but different parts of the MSY, in the form of a unique Y-Y internal recombination . On the other hand, X-Y recombination is limited to the two pseudoautosomal regions, i.e. PAR1 and PAR2, thus leaving no part of the Y without the ability to participate in some form of recombination, as the term NRY would obviously suggest.
A further study of the sequences in the MSY allows a classification in three categories, each including areas of distinct structure, function and origin:
1. X-degenerate genes. This category includes genes deriving from the various stages of X-Y gradual differentiation proposed by Page and described so far. The term degenerate is used to emphasize their origin from the former ancestral autosome, which was equivalent in size to the X, before it gradually degenerated. One of the genes in this group is the SRY gene. In total, the category includes single copies of 14 pseudogenes and 13 genes, all having a homologue allele in the X. Most of these genes aren't expressed exclusively in a single, specific tissue. Their products are proteins produced in a variety of cells of the body, mediating non-sexual functions.
2. X-transposed genes . These loci include a minimal number of genes and a large proportion of LINE1 sequences and other examples of non-coding DNA. Their homology with regions of the X chromosome leads to the conclusion that they must be a result of a distinct evolutionary process, significantly more recent than the stages proposed by Page. It is possible that these regions were directly translocated from X to Y, a process involving the parallel transfer of several intact genes.
3. Ampliconic genes. These genes exist in multiple copies on the Y, resulting from the replication of an initial copy. Apart from multiple copies per gene, this category also includes eight large palindromes. These genomic areas are characterized by inverted repeat sequences in their edges, while their centre appears to protect "hidden" genes and repeat, non-coding sequences . In attempt to explain the creation of the palindromes the following pattern has been proposed:
1) An initial failure in recombination leads to the transfer of genes from autosomes to the ancestor of the modern Y
2) A series of amplification circles resulted in the presence of multiple copies for each one
3) The reversal of some of the copies has promoted the creation of the palindromes, trapping parts of the Y in between.
It is interesting to note that the formation of the palindromes increased the inherent stability of the Y, raising the question of its possible settlement in its current form, after thousands of years of degeneration and decay . If this is indeed so, the whole theory of continuous Y deterioration as a cause of an increase in male infertility, due to the constant removal of genes essential for effective spermatogenesis, is seriously challenged .
SRY expression is the major sex-determining signal, since it is prerequisite for normal testis formation. Its role mimicks that of a molecular switch, since its peak expression is limited in a specific time period that is still considered sufficient to induce male-type differentiation of the reproductive system, via downstream gene action. The latter refers to several genes, including sox family members, SF1 (sex steroid regulation) and transcriptional factors, such as GATA4. Sox family genes share a common HMG box, similar to that observed in SRY, which is considered necessary for their action at a molecular level. The fact that members of the group have been detected in various species of vertebrates, such as fish (sox9) and all mammals (e.g. sox2 and sox 14 in monotremes) further emphasizes their importance for genetic sex determination . The observation of this gene family's evolutionary conservation adds further credit to the multistage model of sex chromosome evolution described above, since sox3 has been proposed as the autosomal ancestor of SRY, which places it among the chronologically first sex-related genes in the common evolutionary history of all vertebrates .
In the female embryo, the Y chromosome is not present and, therefore, SRY is not expressed. The genetic cascade regulating female reproductive system differentiation is not as extensively studied as in men, but DAX1 (and its regulatory system, including genes such as Wnt4 and SF1) is generally considered as a significant player in this process, which is how it came to acquire the rather simplistic description of the "antitestis gene". Sex steroid production regulation is also important for the establishment of a normal female phenotype and it is mediated via SF1 expression and aromatase enzyme complex induction .
Two relatively recently described genes with a potential role in sex determination and differentiation are DMRT1 and Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8). The first has been already discussed in previous units as a conserved sex-related gene, bearing a DM domain originally studied in nematodes . In humans, XY sex reversal in cases of 9p chromosome deletions have been attributed to impaired action of DMRT1 or its homologue, DMRT2. Still, their exact involvement in the sex determination circuit has not been clarified . Stra8, on the other hand, is exclusively expressed in female germ cells and its presence signals their sexual gradual differentiation, in an anterior to posterior direction. However, it has not yet been established whether the gene's product directly induces sex determination towards the female pathway, or rather acts a simple marker of this phenomenon, without active participation in the process per se [69, 70].
Hormonal and epigenetic regulation of sex determination
Hormonal regulation of sex determination is a vast research field in modern reproductive endocrinology. In fact, recent advances have resulted in a more generalized study of sexual dimorphism, with the discovery that differences expand to far more than the reproductive organs, including visceral tissues and the brain. The study of sex steroid concentrations and the presence of their receptors in various parts of the CNS has already been attempted in various species, including mammals and reptiles. After all, the role of androgens and estrogens in sexual differentiation in vertebrates is a classic concept that modern research data has only supported and expanded, rather than criticize [5, 28]. For instance, aromatase regulation appears to be the final target in the sex determination circuit of several turtles. This has been proven by the experimental work of C.Pieau and colleagues, using aromatase inhibitors to effectively block feminization of the embryos .
Other scientists have even attempted to suggest sex steroids as a driving force in X-Y evolution. According to JM Howard (2002), androgens may be a major regulator of X-Y differentiation . Although increased testosterone may be beneficial for fertility, constant exposure to high quantities may result in spermatogenic arrest. The DAZ gene of the Y is believed to have appeared 30–40 million years ago as a means to maintain spermatogenesis.  In females, increased testosterone levels caused evolutionary pressure and limited the total population, as only few of them survived and transferred their DNA in next generations, a process detected by mitochondrial DNA comparative studies. This is an example of the bottleneck phenomenon, and due to its reference to females, it has been described as the mitochondrial Eve hypothesis [4, 71, 72]. A number of studies in comparative genomic support this theory, such as the results of the research team lead by Hammer (1995) . Increased testosterone levels acting in descendants of these women has resulted in a second wave of evolutionary pressure, surpassed by the maintenance of spermatogenesis by a duplication of the DAZ gene, about 50.000–200.000 years ago . These stages of evolutionary pressure and limitation of the total population may explain the large-scale homology of the regions of the Y chromosome among all modern males (Adam phenomenon) . Failure to provide sufficient evidence, such as the description of all androgen gene targets, their exact importance for male fertility and the degree of their conservation among modern men has not allowed to adequately verify the validity of this theory to this date.
Moreover, sex determination may be related to other, non-hormonal phenomena as well. For instance, immunological parameters and paracrine messages/cytokines may be involved in aromatase regulation, as some relevant initial data indicate [29, 30]. In addition, sex has been proposed to be associated with selective cell proliferation. This view is supported by U. Mittwoch and is largely based on the comparative observation of male and female gonadal development in different successive stages and for a number of different model organisms . If this is indeed so, it could be the result of sex steroid regulation, thus sharing some common ground with the abovementioned theories. Alternatively, there could be a completely independent pathway of mitotic induction, implicating a number of growth factors. The description of several sex-related genes conserved in various species may support this view, since sex steroids alone may not be sufficient to explain these genes' action, especially in the case of invertebrates. On the other hand, epigenetic regulation of the sexual phenotype has been proposed, which means that the products of these genes (or their downstream aftermath) could influence DNA replication and/or transcription by direct contact within the nucleus. This mechanism may be evaluated by the analytical description of all epigenetic changes occuring at a chromatin level during the various stages of normal sex differentiation and their comparison with observations made in individuals with sex distortions .
Sex determination is a crucial process in developmental biology. Its accurate regulation is a prerequisite for reproductive success and, therefore, the continued survival of a species. Since reproduction is also the function that determines the categorization of specific populations in the same or different species, the analysis of the specific molecular patterns that this process may follow is crucial for the comprehension of the detailed biochemical background mediating and maintaining the phenotypical variety observed at a macroscopical level. This is also useful for the explanation of the mechanism of infertility, since in many cases the disorder is caused by a genetic default.
Contemplating the above mechanisms as a whole, it is clear that they exhibit many differences (e.g. environmental contribution, number of genes involved, known primary sex-determinant or simultaneous action of different genes), but intriguing similarities as well. Among the latter one may briefly point at: a) the central role of aromatase regulation for female vertebrates. This similarity could also be generalized to include all sex steroids and their regulators, such as SF1. One should not fail to detect the homology of SF1 encoding gene, FtzF1 to Drosophila's fushi tarazu, which has not yet been adequately explained in terms of either evolutionary origin or gene function.
b) the action of sox family proteins in all mammals and some other vertebrates, such as fish. This category includes the primary sex determinant of all mammals, namely SRY, which might justify its proposed evolutionary history from an original autosome homologue, namely sox3.
c) the conservation of genes bearing a DM or LIM domain. This is a relatively new finding, but the fact that these products spread from dipterans and nematodes to humans must imply some degree of coherence in their regulatory mechanisms.
Whether to establish inter-relating patterns of evolution or simply for the sake of the knowledge that can be gleaned from understanding these vastly diffident mechanisms, these differences and similarities will definitely continue to hold the interest of the scientific community for years to come.
- sl-CSD :
single-locus complementary sex determination
- csd :
complementary sex determiner
- sxl :
- dpn :
- da :
- emc :
- her :
- snf :
- DSX :
- SEX-1 :
signal element on X 1
- FOX-1 :
feminizing on X 1
- XOL-1 :
XO lethal 1
- TRA-1 :
- HER-1 :
- TSP :
- Cyt P450 :
- DAX1 :
dosage-sensitive sex reversal 1
- DMRT1 :
doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor 1
- SOX9 :
SRY related HMG box 9
- AMH :
- SRY :
sex determining region of the Y chromosome
- DMY :
DM domain of the Y chromosome
- FIGa :
factor in the germ line a
- FTzF1 :
fushi tarazu factor 1
- SF1 :
steroidogenic factor 1
- FET1 :
female-expressed transcript 1
- ASW :
avian sex-specific on W chromosome
- WPKCI :
W chromosome protein kinase C inhibitor
- ZPKCI :
Z chromosome protein kinase C inhibitor
- XCI :
- LINE1 :
long interspersed nuclear elements
- XIST :
X inactivation specific transcript
- MSY :
male specific region of the Y chromosome
- NRY :
non- recombining region of the Y chromosome
- WT1 :
Wilm's tumor 1
- Stra8 :
stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8
- DAZ :
deleted in azoospermia
The expenses for the publication of this paper have been covered by a research grant, obtained by co-author R.A., Experimental Embryology Unit of the Department of Histology and Embryology, Athens University, Greece, co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources – (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS (grant "Pythagoras" 70/3/7361).
- Mittwoch U: Sex is a threshold dichotomy mimicking a single gene effect. Trends Genet. 2006, 22: 96-100. 10.1016/j.tig.2005.12.003.View ArticlePubMed
- Manolakou P, Angelopoulou R, Lavranos G: Sex Determinants in the Genome: Lessons from the Animal Kingdom. Coll Antropol. 2006, 30: 649-52.PubMed
- Schartl M: Sex chromosome evolution in non-mammalian vertebrates. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004, 14: 634-641. 10.1016/j.gde.2004.09.005.View ArticlePubMed
- Howard J: Mitochondrial Eve, Y chromosome Adam, testosterone and human evolution. Riv Biol. 2002, 95: 319-325.PubMed
- Lavranos G, Angelopoulou R, Manolakou P, Balla M: Hormonal and Meta-Hormonal Determinants of Sexual Dimorphism. Coll Antropol. 2006, 30: 659-63.PubMed
- Beye M, Hasselmann M, Fondrk MK, Page RE, Omholt SW: The Gene csd Is the Primary Signal for Sexual Development in the Honeybee and Encodes an SR-Type Protein. Cell. 2003, 114: 419-429. 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00606-8.View ArticlePubMed
- Charlesworth B: Sex Determination in the Honeybee. Cell. 2003, 114: 397-398. 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00610-X.View ArticlePubMed
- Beye M: The dice of fate: the csd gene and how its allelic composition regulates sexual development in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. BioEssays. 2004, 26: 1131-1139. 10.1002/bies.20098.View ArticlePubMed
- Stalhut JK, Cowan DP: Single-locus complementary sex determination in the inbreeding wasp Euodynerus foraminatus Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Heredity. 2004, 92: 189-196. 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800394.View Article
- Zayed A: Effective population size in Hymenoptera with complementary sex determination. Heredity. 2004, 93: 627-630. 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800588.View ArticlePubMed
- Penalva LOF, Sanchez L: RNA binding protein sex-lethal (sxl) and control of Drosophila sex determination and dosage compensation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2003, 67: 343-359. 10.1128/MMBR.67.3.343-359.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- MacDougall C, Harbison D, Bownes M: The developmental consequences of alternate splicing in sex determination and differentiation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995, 172: 353-376. 10.1006/dbio.1995.8047.View ArticlePubMed
- Keyes LN, Cline TW, Schedi P: The primary sex determination signal of Drosophila acts on the level of transcription. Cell. 1992, 68: 933-943. 10.1016/0092-8674(92)90036-C.View ArticlePubMed
- Lalli E, Ohe K, Latorre E, Bianchi ME, Sassone-Corsi P: Sexy splicing: regulatory interplays governing sex determination from Drosophila to mammals. J Cell Sci. 2003, 116: 441-445. 10.1242/jcs.00249.View ArticlePubMed
- De Loof A, Huybrechts R: "Insects do not have sex hormones": a myth?. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1998, 111: 245-260. 10.1006/gcen.1998.7101.View ArticlePubMed
- Carmi I, Kopczynski JB, Meyer BJ: The nuclear hormone receptor SEX-1 is an X-chromosome signal that determines nematode sex. Nature. 1998, 396: 168-173. 10.1038/24164.View ArticlePubMed
- Meyer BJ: Sex in the worm; counting and compensating X-chromosome dose. TIG. 2000, 16: 247-253.View ArticlePubMed
- Kuwabara PE, Kimble J: Molecular genetics of sex determination in C.elegans. TIG. 1992, 8: 164-168.View ArticlePubMed
- Stothard P, Pilgrim D: Sex determination gene and pathway evolution in nematodes. BioEssays. 2003, 25: 221-231. 10.1002/bies.10239.View ArticlePubMed
- Kuwabara PE, Perry MD: It ain't over till it's ova: germline sex determination in C.elegans. BioEssays. 2001, 23: 596-604. 10.1002/bies.1085.View ArticlePubMed
- Puoti A, Pugnale P, Belfiore M, Sclappi AC, Saudan Z: RNA and sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO reports. 2001, 2: 889-904. 10.1093/embo-reports/kve209.View Article
- Graves JAM, Shetty S: Sex from W to Z: evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and sex determining genes. J Exp Zool. 2001, 290: 449-462. 10.1002/jez.1088.View Article
- Maldonado L, Piedra A, Mendoza N, Valencia A, Martúneza A, Larios H: Expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 during temperature sex determination in gonads of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 2002, 129: 20-26. 10.1016/S0016-6480(02)00511-7.View Article
- Ferguson MW: Temperature of egg incubation determines sex in Alligator mississippiensis. Nature. 1982, 296: 850-853. 10.1038/296850a0.View ArticlePubMed
- Harvey P, Slatkin M: Some like it hot: temperature-determined sex. Nature. 1982, 296: 807-808. 10.1038/296807a0.View ArticlePubMed
- Pieau C, Dorizzi M: Oestrogens and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles: all is in the gonads. J Endocrin. 2004, 181: 367-377. 10.1677/joe.0.1810367.View Article
- Sarre SD, Georges A, Quinn A: The ends of a continuum: genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. BioEssays. 2004, 26: 639-645. 10.1002/bies.20050.View ArticlePubMed
- Wennstrom K, Gill C, Crews D: Sex differences in estrogen-induced progesterone and estrogen receptor mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamus of hatchling whiptail lizards. Developmental Brain Research. 2003, 145: 151-157. 10.1016/S0165-3806(03)00225-6.View ArticlePubMed
- Simpson E, Davis S: Minireview: Aromatase and the Regulation of Estrogen Biosynthesis – Some New Perspectives. Endocrinology. 2001, 142: 4589-4594. 10.1210/en.142.11.4589.PubMed
- Purohit A, Singh A, Ghilchik M, Serlupi-Crescenzi O, Reed M: Inhibition of IL-6+IL-6 soluble receptor-stimulated aromatase activity by the IL-6 antagonist, Sant 7, in breast tissue-derived fibroblasts. British Journal of Cancer. 2003, 88: 630-635. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6600785.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Aoyama S, Shibata K, Tokunaga S, Takase M, Matsui K, Nakamura M: Expression of Dmrt1 protein in developing and in sex-reversed gonads of amphibians. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2003, 101: 295-301. 10.1159/000074352.View ArticlePubMed
- Shibata K, Takase M, Nakamura M: The Dmrt1 expression in sex-reversed gonads of amphibians. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2002, 127: 232-241. 10.1016/S0016-6480(02)00039-4.View ArticlePubMed
- Hofsten J, Per-Erik O: Zebra-fish sex determination and differentiation: Involvement of FTZ-F1 genes. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005, 3: 63-10.1186/1477-7827-3-63.View Article
- Artieri C, Mitchell L, Ng S, Parisotto S, Danzmann R, Hoyheim B, Phillips R, Morasch M, Koop B, Davidson W: Identification of the sex-determining locus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) on chromosome 2. Cytogen Gen Research. 2006, 112: 152-159. 10.1159/000087528.View Article
- Matsuda M: Sex determination in the teleost medaka, Oryzias latipes. Annu Rev Genet. 2005, 39: 293-307. 10.1146/annurev.genet.39.110304.095800.View ArticlePubMed
- Krovel A, Olsen L: Sexual dimorphic expression pattern of a splice variant of zebrafish vasa during gonadal development. Dev Biol. 2004, 271: 190-197. 10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.04.004.View ArticlePubMed
- Fujiwara Y, Komiya T, Kawabata H, Sato M, Fujimoto H, Furusawa M, Noce T: Isolation of a DEAD-family protein gene that encodes a murine homolog of Drosophila vasa and its specific expression in germ cell lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994, 91: 12258-12262. 10.1073/pnas.91.25.12258.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Mizuno S, Kunita R, Nakabayashi O, Kuroda Y, Arai N, Harata M, Ogawa A, Itoh Y, Teranishi M, Hori T: Z and W chromosomes of chickens: studies on their gene functions in sex determination and sex differentiation. Cytogenet Gen Res. 2002, 99: 236-244. 10.1159/000071599.View Article
- Pace HC, Brenner C: Feminizing chicks: a model for avian sex determination based on titration of Hint enzyme activity and the predicted structure of an Asw-Hint heterodimer. Genome Biology. 2003, 4: R18-10.1186/gb-2003-4-3-r18.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ellegren H: Hens, cocks and avian sex determination. A quest for genes on Z or W?. Embo reports. 2001, 2: 192-196. 10.1093/embo-reports/kve050.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Smith CA, Sinclair AH: Sex determination: insights from the chicken. BioEssays. 2004, 26: 120-132. 10.1002/bies.10400.View ArticlePubMed
- Clinton M, Haines LC: An overview of factors influencing sex determination and gonadal development in birds. CMLS Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999, 55: 876-886. 10.1007/s000180050341.View Article
- Pask A, Benfree MB: Sex determining genes and sexual differentiation in marsupials. J Exp Zool. 2001, 290: 588-596. 10.1002/jez.1109.View Article
- Pask A, Marshall Graves JA: Sex chromosomes and sex-determining genes: insights from marsupials and monotremes. CMLS Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999, 55: 864-875. 10.1007/s000180050340.View ArticlePubMed
- Glickman SE, Short RV, Renfree MB: Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: Spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies. Hormones and Behavior. 2005, 48: 403-417. 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2005.07.013.View ArticlePubMed
- Ayling L, Griffin D: The evolution of sex chromosomes. Cytogenet Gen Res. 2002, 99: 125-140. 10.1159/000071584.View Article
- Page D: 2003 Curt Stern Award Address. On low expectations exceeded; or, the genomic salvation of the Y chromosome. Am J Hum Genet. 2004, 74: 399-402. 10.1086/382659.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ohno S: Sex chromosomes and sex-linked genes. Springer, Berlin. 1967
- Jost A, Magre S, Angelopoulou R: Early stages of testicular differentiation in the rat. Hum Genet. 1981, 58: 59-63. 10.1007/BF00284150.View ArticlePubMed
- Jegalian K, Lahn B: Why the Y is so weird?. Scientific American. 2001, 2: 42-47. [http://www.sciamdigital.com]
- Lahn B, Page D: Four evolutionary strata on the human X chromosome. Science. 1999, 286: 964-967. 10.1126/science.286.5441.964.View ArticlePubMed
- Page D, Harper M, Love J, Botstein D: Occurrence of a transposition from the X chromosome long arm to the Y chromosome short arm during human evolution. Nature. 1984, 311: 119-123. 10.1038/311119a0.View ArticlePubMed
- Watson JM, Spencer JA, Riggs AD, Graves JA: Sex chromosome evolution: Platypous gene mapping suggests that part of the human X chromosome was originally autosomal. PNAS. 1991, 88: 11256-11260. 10.1073/pnas.88.24.11256.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Carrel L, Cottle A, Goglin KC, Willard HF: A first generation X-inactivation profile of the human X chromosome. Procl Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999, 96: 14440-14444. 10.1073/pnas.96.25.14440.View Article
- Jegalian K, Page D: A proposed path by which genes common to mammalian X and Y Chromosomes evolve to become X inactivated. Nature. 1998, 394: 776-780. 10.1038/29522.View ArticlePubMed
- Lyon M: Some milestones in the history of X-chromosome in activation. Annu Rev Genet. 1992, 26: 17-28. 10.1146/annurev.ge.26.120192.000313.View Article
- Riggs A: Marsupials and mechanisms of X chromosome inactivation. Aust J Zool. 1990, 37: 419-441. 10.1071/ZO9890419.View Article
- Skaletsky H, Kuroda-Kawaguchi T, Minx PJ, Cordum HS, Hillier L, Brown LG, Repping S, Pyntikova T, Ali J, Bieri T, Chinwalla A, Delehaunty A, Delehaunty K, Du H, Fewell G, Fulton L, Fulton R, Graves T, Hou SF, Latrielle P, Leonard S, Mardis E, Maupin R, McPherson J, Miner T, Nash W, Nguyen C, Ozersky P, Pepin K, Rock S, Rohlfing T, Scott K, Schultz B, Strong C, Tin-Wollam A, Yang SP, Waterston RH, Wilson RK, Rozen S, Page DC: The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes. Nature. 2003, 423: 825-837. 10.1038/nature01722.View ArticlePubMed
- Willard HF: Genome biology: Tales of the Y chromosome. Nature. 2003, 423: 810-813. 10.1038/423810a.View ArticlePubMed
- Schwartz A, Chan D, Brown LG, Alagappan R, Pettay D, Disteche C, McGillivray B, de la Chapelle A, Page DC: Reconstructing hominid Y evolution: X-homologous block, created by X-Y transposition, was disrupted by Yp inversion through LINE-LINE recombination. Hum Mol Genet. 1998, 7: 1-11. 10.1093/hmg/7.1.1.View ArticlePubMed
- Rozen S, Skaletsky H, Marszalek JD, Minx PJ, Cordum HS, Waterston RH, Wilson RK, Page DC: Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes. Nature. 2003, 423: 873-876. 10.1038/nature01723.View ArticlePubMed
- Lahn B, Page D: Functional coherence of the human Y chromosome. Science. 1997, 278: 675-680. 10.1126/science.278.5338.675.View ArticlePubMed
- Repping S, Skaletsky H, Lange J, Silber S, Van Der Veen F, Oates RD, Page DC, Rozen S: Recombination between palindromes P5 and P1 on the human Y chromosome causes massive deletions and spermatogenic failure. Am J Hum Genet. 2002, 71: 906-922. 10.1086/342928.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Angelopoulou R: Experimental Embryology. PMP Athens. 2005, 23-29. Second
- Kirby P, Waters P, Delbridge M, Svartman M, Stewart A, Nagai K, Graves J: Cloning and mapping of platypus SOX2 and SOX14: insights into SOX group B evolution. Cytogenet Gen Res. 2002, 98: 96-100. 10.1159/000068539.View Article
- Foster J, Graves J: An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994, 91: 1927-1931. 10.1073/pnas.91.5.1927.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Volff J, Zarkower D, Bardwell V, Schartl M: Evolutionary Dynamics of the DM Domain Gene Family in Metazoans. J Mol Evol. 2003, 57: S241-S249. 10.1007/s00239-003-0033-0.View ArticlePubMed
- Raymond C, Parker E, Kettlewell J, Brown L, Page D, Kusz K, Jaruzelska J, Reinberg Y, Flejter W, Bardwell V, Hirsch B, Zarkower D: A region of human chromosome 9p required for testis development contains two genes related to known sexual regulators. Hum Mol Genet. 1999, 8: 989-996. 10.1093/hmg/8.6.989.View ArticlePubMed
- Bouillet P, Oulad-Abdelghani M, Vilcaire S, Garnier J, Schuhbaur B, Dolle P, Chambon P: Efficient cloning of cDNAs of retinoic acid- responsive genes in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and characterization of a novel mouse gene, stra1 (mouse LERK-2/Eplg2). Dev Biol. 1995, 170: 420-433. 10.1006/dbio.1995.1226.View ArticlePubMed
- Menke D, Koubova J, Page D: Sexual differentiation of germ cells in XX mouse gonads occurs in an anterior-to-posterior wave. Dev Biol. 2003, 262: 303-312. 10.1016/S0012-1606(03)00391-9.View ArticlePubMed
- Agulnik AI, Zharkikh A, Boettger-Tong H, Bourgeron T, McElreavey K, Bishop CE: Evolution of the DAZ gene family suggests that Y-linked DAZ plays little or a limited role in spermatogenesis but underlines a recent African origin for human populations. Hum Mol Genet. 1998, 7: 1371-1377. 10.1093/hmg/7.9.1371.View ArticlePubMed
- Ayala FJ: The myth of Eve: molecular biology and human origins. Science. 1995, 270: 1930-1936. 10.1126/science.270.5244.1930.View ArticlePubMed
- Hammer MF: A recent common ancestry for human Y chromosomes. Nature. 1995, 378: 376-378. 10.1038/378376a0.View ArticlePubMed
- Saxena R, Brown LG, Hawkins T, Alagappan RK, Skaletsky H, Reeve MP, Reijo R, Rozen S, Dinulos MB, Disteche CM, Page DC: The DAZ gene cluster on the human Y chromosome arose from an autosomal gene that was transposed, repeatedly amplified and pruned. Nat Genet. 1996, 14: 292-299. 10.1038/ng1196-292.View ArticlePubMed
- Whitfield LS, Sulston JE, Goodfellow PN: Sequence variation of the human Y chromosome. Nature. 1995, 378: 379-380. 10.1038/378379a0.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.