Association of sperm protein 17 with A-kinase anchoring protein 3 in flagella
© Lea et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004
Received: 17 June 2004
Accepted: 16 July 2004
Published: 16 July 2004
Sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a three-domain protein that contains: 1) a highly conserved N-terminal domain that is 45% identical to the human type II alpha regulatory subunit (RII alpha) of protein kinase A (PKA); 2) a central sulphated carbohydrate-binding domain; and 3) a C-terminal Ca++/calmodulin (CaM) binding domain. Although Sp17 was originally discovered and characterized in spermatozoa, its mRNA has now been found in a variety of normal mouse and human tissues. However, Sp17 protein is found predominantly in spermatozoa, cilia and human neoplastic cell lines. This study demonstrates that Sp17 from spermatozoa binds A-kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3), confirming the functionality of the N-terminal domain.
In this study in vitro precipitation and immunolocalization demonstrate that Sp17 binds to AKAP3 (AKAP110) in spermatozoa.
Sp17 is present in the head and tail of spermatozoa, in the tail it is in the fibrous sheath, which contains AKAP3 and AKAP4. Recombinant AKAP3 and AKAP4 RII binding domains were synthesized as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins immobilized on glutathione-agarose resin and added to CHAPS extracts of human spermatozoa. Western blots of bound and eluted proteins probed with anti-Sp17 revealed that AKAP3 bound and precipitated a significant level of Sp17 while AKAP4 did not. AKAP4 binds AKAP3 and expression of AKAP3 is reduced in AKAP4 knockout sperm, therefore we tested AKAP4 knockout spermatozoa for Sp17 and found that there was a reduction in the amount of Sp17 expressed when compared to wild type spermatozoa. Co-localization of AKAP3 and Sp17 by immunofluorescence was demonstrated along the length of the principal piece of the flagella.
As predicted by its N-terminal domain that is 45% identical to the human RIIα of PKA, Sp17 from spermatozoa binds the RII binding domain of AKAP3 along the length of the flagella.
Sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a three-domain protein that contains: 1) a highly conserved N-terminal domain that is 45% identical to the human type II alpha regulatory subunit (RII alpha) of PKA; 2) a central sulphated carbohydrate-binding domain; and 3) a C-terminal Ca++/calmodulin (CaM) binding domain [1–4]. Although Sp17 was originally discovered and characterized in spermatozoa as a zona pellucida binding protein because of its ability to bind sulphated carbohydrates [1, 3, 5], its mRNA has now been found in a variety of normal mouse  and human tissues  as well as in malignant somatic cells, including lymphocytes , primary ovarian carcinoma cells , and other human neoplastic cell lines . Present in the head of mouse and rabbit spermatozoa, Sp17 has been shown to function immediately after the beginning of the acrosome reaction as a zona pellucida binding protein and to lose its C-terminal Ca++/calmodulin (CaM) binding domain [1, 2, 10, 11]. The role of Sp17 in flagella has never been investigated and it seems likely that the N-terminal dimer interaction domain, which is highly conserved  and 45% identical to the human RIIα of PKA  might interact with AKAPs that are abundant in the flagella. The similarity of the N-terminal domain to RIIα implicates Sp17 as a binding protein of an AKAP (A-kinase anchoring protein; ) and Carr et al.  have recently confirmed by an alignment analysis the similarity of the N-terminal of Sp17 to several other proteins from testis containing RII alpha-like AKAP binding domains (ASP (AKAP-associated protein), FSII (fibrosheathin II), ropporin).
Lymphocytes , spermatozoa [14–16] and cilia  have a variety of AKAPs. In fact all cells that have been investigated contain a variety of AKAPs [18, 19], which serve to localize cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to different compartments within the cell and thereby restrict phosphorylation of target proteins and the resultant signal cascades to distinct regions within the cell. As a part of this function AKAPs are often considered to be scaffold proteins binding various components of signal transduction pathways in addition to the protein kinases [20, 21]. In the flagella of spermatozoa AKAP3 (AKAP110) and AKAP4 (AKAP82) are the two most abundant proteins of the fibrous sheath (FS; [14, 15, 22]). AKAP4, which has two PKA regulatory sub-unit binding sites, one specific for RI alpha and one with dual specificity for RI alpha and RII alpha , can bind AKAP3 . Two separate lines of evidence have addressed the role of AKAP3. The first suggests AKAP3 acts as a scaffold protein for RII alpha and the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G protein, G13 . The second shows that the RII alpha binding site of AKAP3 is, so far, unique in its ability to bind proteins other than RII alpha because ropporin and ASP (AKAP-associated sperm protein) have both been shown to bind AKAP3 . Little is known of ASP but ropporin is known to bind rhophilin, which is a GTPase Rho binding protein fundamental to the Rho signal transduction pathway . In this way AKAP3 acts as a scaffold protein for 2 independent signal transduction pathways.
In the present study we have demonstrated that Sp17 and AKAP3 are associated in spermatozoa. This interaction most likely occurs when the N-terminal domain of Sp17 binds the RII alpha binding site of AKAP3 in the fibrous sheath.
All chemicals and reagents used in this study were molecular biology grade. The entire coding region of human Sp17 was expressed as a six-histidine tagged recombinant protein in the vector pQE-30 (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, CA) as described [1, 2]. Antibodies to recombinant human Sp17 were prepared in rabbits as described  using 200 μg recombinant protein emulsified in Titermax adjuvant (Sigma Chemical Co., St Louis, MO) at 0 weeks. Three further immunizations were given at weeks 4, 6 and 18 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant.
AKAP3 (a.a. 1–200) cDNA was synthesized from mouse testis total RNA by reverse transcription PCR and verified by sequencing. The cDNA was ligated into pGST-4T-1 expression vector (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) and GST-fusion proteins of AKAP3, AKAP4 and GST alone expressed as described . Fusion proteins were separated from crude bacterial extracts (1–3 μl) by incubation with 25 μl glutathione-agarose resin (Sigma Chemical Co., St Louis, MO) for 30 minutes, 4°C. Non-specifically bound bacterial proteins were removed by extensive washing with PBS.
Lysates were prepared from washed human spermatozoa by incubation in CHAPS/PBS buffer (127 mM NaCl, 6.7 mM Na2PO4, 3.25 mM NaH2PO4, pH 7.0 and 5 mM CHAPS (3-[(cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate)) containing Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis MO) for 30–60 minutes, 4°C. Following this, spermatozoa were sonicated, centrifuged 700 g for 5 minutes and the supernatant removed. Aliquots of spermatozoa lysate (400 μg) were then added to agarose immobilized GST-AKAP3, GST-AKAP4 or GST alone, the total volume adjusted to 0.5 ml with PBS and proteins allowed to bind for 2 hours at 4°C. After washing extensively with PBS to remove unbound proteins, SDS sample buffer containing 5% β-mercaptoethanol was added and proteins eluted by boiling for 5 minutes.
Electrophoresis and blotting
SDS-PAGE and Western blots were carried out according to methods previously described [1–3]. Blots were blocked with TBST (50 mM Tris pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% Tween 20) containing 2% non-fat milk for 30–60 minutes, room temperature (RT) and probed with either rabbit anti-recombinant human Sp17 (anti-Sp17) IgG (1:2000) or normal rabbit IgG (1:2000) in TBST containing 1% non-fat milk for 1–2 hours. Antibody binding was detected with alkaline phosphatase conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG Fc (1:1000) in the same buffer for 1 hour at room temperature. Blots were developed with NBT/BCIP (nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4chloro-3-indolyl phosphate) as substrate. Chemiluminescent staining was performed using Supersignal West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate (Pierce, Rockford, IL) according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry
Human spermatozoa (gift of Dr. S. Beyler, University of North Carolina Hospital, Chapel Hill, NC) were washed in BWW medium by centrifugation at 500 g for 5 minutes, permeabilized with 1% Triton X-100, 15 minutes, washed twice and resuspended in PBS. Aliquots of spermatozoa were air dried onto slides and then fixed in methanol for 10 minutes (-20°C). For indirect immunofluorescence, spermatozoa were probed with rat antiserum to recombinant human AKAP3 (rFSP95, gift of Dr J. Herr, University of Virginia, VA; ) at 1:50 dilution and anti-Sp17 IgG at 1:100. Antibody binding was detected with Alexa Fluor-488 labeled goat anti-rat IgG (Molecular Probes, Eugene OR) and Alexa Fluor-568 labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) at 1:5000 dilution. DNA was visualized with DAPI diluted 1:250,000 from a 5 mg/ml stock.
Fluorescent images were obtained from a Zeiss Axiophot microscope equipped with Plan-apochromat 63× 1.4 NA (numerical aperture), Plan-neofluar 100× 1.3 NA and 40× 0.75 NA objectives, chroma filter sets (Chroma Technology Corp., Brattleboro, VT), and Zeiss filter set 25 (emission at 460, 530 and 610 nm) that allows detection of co-localized Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 568 probes (Molecular Probes, Eugene OR). Images were recorded with a Zeiss AxioCam using AxioVision software (Zeiss MicroImaging, Thornwood, NY) and exported to Adobe Photoshop® 5.0 to assemble the figures.
Fibrous sheath preparation
Mouse spermatozoa extracts were prepared from epididymal mouse spermatozoa allowed to swim out of the epididymis at 37°C, pelleted at 800 g and washed twice in PBS. Spermatozoa were lysed in sample buffer and loaded at 5 × 106 /well. Western blots of fibrous sheath preparations , prepared from CD-1 mouse epididymal spermatozoa, were kindly provided by Dr. D. O'Brien, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Sp17 binds AKAP3 in flagella
This result demonstrates that Sp17 has specificity for particular AKAPs and does not indiscriminately bind all AKAPs. Moreover when recombinant GST alone was used in the binding assay, no Sp17 was precipitated indicating that GST does not interact with Sp17 (Fig. 2A). Amido black staining of mock pull down assays in which no spermatozoan lysate was added revealed similar levels of recombinant GST protein in each assay (Fig. 2A). Therefore differential levels of Sp17 binding to AKAP3 and AKAP4 were not the result of differences in the amount of AKAP protein added to the assays.
Similar binding experiments are impossible to perform with native AKAP3 and AKAP4 because these proteins are highly insoluble. Therefore we utilized spermatozoa from AKAP4 knockout (KO) mice to analyze the interaction of Sp17 with AKAPs in vivo. These mice were generated through targeted disruption of the Akap4 gene resulting in complete loss of AKAP4 . In spermatozoa from these mice, the FS forms incompletely, the principal piece is shorter and they do not exhibit progressive motility . Interestingly the loss of AKAP4 also resulted in a significant reduction or absence of other proteins typically associated with the fibrous sheath: AKAP3, RII alpha and GAPDS . Since AKAP4 binds AKAP3  and we have shown that Sp17 binds AKAP3 in vitro, a reduction in the binding of Sp17 might therefore be expected in AKAP4 KO spermatozoa. To assess this we performed Western blots of spermatozoa lysates from 5 × 106 wild type and AKAP4 KO spermatozoa. Probing with antibodies to Sp17 demonstrated Sp17 in both populations of spermatozoa. Significantly though there was a reduction in the amount of Sp17 present in AKAP4 KO spermatozoa when compared to wild type (Fig. 2B). To quantitate this change in protein level, densitometric scanning of the blot was performed using GelExpert software (NucleoTech Corporation). A 27% reduction in signal intensity was observed in AKAP4 knockout compared to wild type spermatozoa (figure 2C).
Since AKAPs 3 and 4 are located in the fibrous sheath (FS)  we examined whether Sp17 was also present. Isolation of the FS from spermatozoa has been achieved by its lack of solubility in successive extractions with Triton X-100, potassium thiocyanate and 4 M urea . Western blots of FS preparations probed with anti-Sp17 demonstrated that Sp17 was present and similar levels of Sp17 were found in equivalent numbers of lysed spermatozoa in SDS sample buffer (Fig. 2D).
Sp17 is one of a group of proteins that share a domain with a strong homology to the N-terminus of the type II regulatory sub-unit of protein kinase A, responsible for protein dimerization and AKAP binding. Of these proteins Sp17 has the highest level of identity with RII alpha (45%) and this includes Leu13 (Leu20 of Sp17) and Phe36 (Phe43 of Sp17) defined by Li and Rubin  as essential for RII beta dimerization, a pre-requisite for AKAP binding. Furthermore, other amino acids that have been shown to facilitate the tethering of RII beta to AKAP, namely, Val20-Leu21 and Phe31-Leu33, are also conserved in Sp17. In the present study we have demonstrated Sp17's association with AKAP3 in flagella, which is consistent with the striking conservation of Sp17's N-terminal (~90%) from marsupials to primates  and may be the common theme in the divergent observations of Sp17's over expression in malignant cells, and presence in spermatozoa and cilia.
The present study found significant levels of Sp17 associated with AKAP3 in the fibrous sheath and only a weak association with AKAP4 (figure 2). This demonstrates a specificity of Sp17 for particular AKAPs, although it is possible that the low affinity of AKAP4 for Sp17 could be a consequence of a sub-optimal conformation of the recombinant AKAP4 protein. However it has been observed that recombinant ropporin (full length) did not bind to recombinant AKAP4 whereas a recombinant ropporin RII binding domain did . This suggests that the conformation of the recombinant AKAP4 protein is able to play a significant role in determining RII binding specificity.
Sp17's binding to AKAP3 may reflect a functional need for Ca++/CaM at sites along the flagella, where Ca++/CaM is known to play a role in motility [31, 32]. Although all AKAPs are defined by their ability to bind the RII sub-unit of PKA, studies to address the relative affinity of RII alpha for different AKAPs have not yet been performed. Undoubtedly the affinity of AKAPs for the Sp17 RII homologue protein will be different from both RII alpha and other RII homologue proteins. AKAP3 may indeed bind other RII homologues that were not tested in this study.
Immunofluorescent double labeling experiments of Sp17 and AKAP3 (Fig. 3C) demonstrated that sub-populations of these proteins co-localize in the principal piece, and occur independently of each other as well. The similarity of solubility profiles for both Sp17 and AKAP3 proteins further suggests they are bound; they are insoluble in Triton X-100, potassium thiocyanate and 4 M urea. Our results (Fig. 2) confirm that a sub-population of Sp17 is anchored in the fibrous sheath, probably by binding to AKAP3. Nevertheless, Sp17 could bind other AKAPs such as AKAP-220 , TAKAP-80 , and sAKAP-84  throughout the spermatozoon, and AKAP3 could bind the other RII homologues and RII alpha itself.
In addition to PKA or RII homologue proteins, AKAPs bind other functionally important proteins at other sites along the molecule. In the case of AKAP4, these other proteins include AKAP3, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDS and two novel proteins FSIP 1 and FSIP 2 . This grouping of sequence unrelated but functionally related proteins on the AKAP is presumed to facilitate their function in the cell. As we have shown AKAP3 binds Sp17 in vitro, it is possible that Sp17 forms part of the AKAP4/RII/AKAP3/ complex through binding to AKAP3. Indeed, loss of AKAP4 resulted in reduced levels of not only AKAP3 and GAPDS  but also Sp17. Ropporin and ASP are also known to bind to AKAP3 via the RII binding domain  but whether these proteins compete with Sp17 for binding to AKAP3 or whether sub-populations of AKAP3 bind all three proteins at different sites on the fibrous sheath is not known.
In summary, we have demonstrated an association of Sp17 with AKAP3 in spermatozoa and because the N-terminus of Sp17 has a strong homology to the type II regulatory sub-unit of protein kinase A, responsible for protein dimerization and AKAP binding, a common theme in the divergent observations of Sp17's presence in malignant cells, cilia and spermatozoa, may be Sp17's ability to bind AKAPs.
This work supported by NICHD, National Institutes of Health, through Cooperative Agreement U54HD35041 as part of the Specialized Cooperative Centers Program in Reproductive Research. The authors thank Drs. Miki and O'Brien for their generous gifts of reagents and AKAP4 knockout spermatozoa, and their helpful suggestions.
- Richardson RT, Yamasaki N, O'Rand MG: Sequence of a rabbit sperm zona pellucida binding protein and localization during the acrosome reaction. Dev Biol. 1994, 165: 688-701. 10.1006/dbio.1994.1285.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wen Y, Richardson RT, O'Rand MG: Processing of the sperm protein Sp17 during the acrosome reaction and characterization as a calmodulin binding protein. Dev Biol. 1999, 206: 113-122. 10.1006/dbio.1998.9137.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wen Y, Richardson RT, O'Rand MG: Characterization of Sp17: A ubiquitous three domain protein that binds heparin. Biochem J. 2001, 357: 25-31. 10.1042/0264-6021:3570025.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lea IA, Richardson RT, Widgren EE, O'Rand MG: Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the human sperm protein, Sp17. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996, 1307: 263-266. 10.1016/0167-4781(96)00077-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Rand MG, Widgren EE, Fisher SJ: Characterization of the rabbit sperm membrane autoantigen, RSA, as a lectin-like zona binding protein. Dev Biol. 1988, 129: 231-240.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frayne J, Hall L: A re-evaluation of sperm protein 17 (Sp17) indicates a regulatory role in an A-kinase anchoring protein complex, rather than a unique role in sperm-zona pellucida binding. Reproduction. 2002, 124: 767-774. 10.1530/rep.0.1240767.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lacy HM, Sanderson RD: Sperm protein 17 is expressed on normal and malignant lymphocytes and promotes heparan sulfate-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Blood. 2001, 98: 2160-2165. 10.1182/blood.V98.7.2160.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chiriva-Internati M, Wang Z, Salati E, Timmins P, Lim SH: Tumor vaccine for ovarian carcinoma targeting sperm protein 17. Cancer. 2002, 94: 2447-2453. 10.1002/cncr.10506.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Jong A, Buchli R, Robbins D: Characterization of sperm protein 17 in human somatic and neoplastic tissue. Cancer Lett. 2002, 186: 201-209. 10.1016/S0304-3835(02)00350-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kong M, Richardson RT, Widgren EE, O'Rand MG: Sequence and localization of the mouse sperm autoantigenic protein, Sp17. Biol Reprod. 1995, 53: 579-590.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamasaki N, Richardson RT, O'Rand MG: Expression of the rabbit sperm protein Sp17 in COS cells and interaction of recombinant Sp17 with the rabbit zona pellucida. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995, 40 (1): 48-55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carr DW, Fujita A, Stentz CL, Liberty GA, Olson GE, Narumiya S: Identification of sperm-specific proteins that interact with A-kinase anchoring proteins in a manner similar to the Type II regulatory subunit of PKA. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 17332-17338. 10.1074/jbc.M011252200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schillace RV, Andrews SF, Liberty GA, Davey MP, Carr DW: Identification and characterization of myeloid translocation gene 16b as a novel A kinase anchoring protein in T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2002, 168: 1590-1599.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miki K, Eddy EM: Identification of tethering domains for protein kinase A type Iα regulatory subunits on sperm fibrous sheath protein FSC1. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 34384-34390. 10.1074/jbc.273.51.34384.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miki K, Willis WD, Brown PR, Goulding EH, Fulcher KD, Eddy EM: Targeted disruption of the Akap4 gene causes defects in sperm flagellum and motility. Devel Biol. 2002, 248: 331-342. 10.1006/dbio.2002.0728.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brown PR, Miki K, Harper DB, Eddy EM: A-kinase anchoring protein 4 binding proteins in the fibrous sheath of the sperm flagellum. Biol Reprod. 2003, 68: 2241-2248.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kultgen PL, Byrd SK, Ostrowski LE, Milgram SL: Characterization of an A-kinase anchoring protein in human ciliary axonemes. Mol Biol Cell. 2002, 13: 4156-4166. 10.1091/mbc.E02-07-0391.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pawson T, Scott JD: Signaling through scaffold, anchoring, and adaptor proteins. Science. 1997, 278: 2075-2080. 10.1126/science.278.5346.2075.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dell'Acqua ML, Scott JD: Protein kinase A anchoring. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 12881-12884. 10.1074/jbc.272.20.12881.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klauck TM, Faux MC, Labudda K, Langeberg LK, Jaken S, Scott JD: Coordination of three signaling enzymes by AKAP79, a mammalian scaffold protein. Science. 1996, 271: 1589-1592.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Faux MC, Scott JD: Regulation of the AKAP-79-protein kinase C interaction by Ca2+/Calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 17038-17044. 10.1074/jbc.272.27.17038.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mandal A, Naaby-Hansen S, Wolkowicz MJ, Klotz K, Shetty J, Retief JD, Coonrod SA, Kinter M, Sherman N, Cesar F, Flickinger CJ, Herr JC: FSP95, A testis-specific 95-kilodalton fibrous sheath antigen that undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation in capacitated human spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 1999, 61: 1184-1197.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niu J, Vaiskunaite R, Suzuki N, Kozasa T, Carr DW, Dulin N, Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA: Interaction of heterotrimeric G13 protein with an A-kinase-anchoring protein 110 (AKAP110) mediates cAMP-independent PKA activation. Curr Biol. 2001, 11: 1686-1690. 10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00530-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fujita A, Nakamura K, Kato T, Watanabe N, Ishizaki T, Kimura K, Mizoguchi A, Narumiya S: Ropporin, a sperm-specific binding protein of rhophilin, that is localized in the fibrous sheath of sperm flagella. J Cell Sci. 2000, 113: 103-112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lea IA, Kurth B, O'Rand MG: The immune response to immunization with sperm antigens in the macaque oviduct. Biol Reprod. 1998, 58: 794-800.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olson GE, Hamilton DW, Fawcett DW: Isolation and characterization of the fibrous sheath of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 1976, 14: 517-530.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eddy EM, Toshimori K, O'Brien DA: Fibrous sheath of mammalian spermatozoa. Microsc Res Tech. 2003, 61: 103-115. 10.1002/jemt.10320.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vijayaraghavan S, Liberty GA, Mohan J, Winfrey VP, Olson GE, Carr DW: Isolation and molecular characterization of AKAP110, a novel, sperm-specific protein kinase A-anchoring protein. Mol Endocrinol. 1999, 13: 705-717. 10.1210/me.13.5.705.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Adoyo PA, Lea IA, Richardson RT, Widgren EE, O'Rand MG: Sequence and characterization of the sperm protein Sp17 from the baboon. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997, 47: 66-71. 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2795(199705)47:1<66::AID-MRD9>3.0.CO;2-O.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Rubin S: Mutagenesis of the regulatory subunit (RIIβ) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase IIβ reveals hydrophobic amino acids that are essential for RIIβ dimerization and/or anchoring RIIβ to the cytoskeleton. J Biol Chem. 1995, 270: 1935-1944. 10.1074/jbc.270.4.1935.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tash JS, Krinks M, Patel J, Means RL, Klee CB, Means AR: Identification, characterization, and functional correlation of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase in sperm. J Cell Biol. 1988, 106: 1625-1633. 10.1083/jcb.106.5.1625.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang P, Diener DR, Rosenbaum JL, Sale WS: Localization of Calmodulin and Dynein Light Chain LC8 in Flagellar Radial Spokes. J Cell Biol. 2001, 153: 1315-1325. 10.1083/jcb.153.6.1315.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reinton N, Collas P, Haugen TB, Skalhegg BS, Hansson V, Jahnsen T, Tasken K: Localization of a novel human A-kinase-anchoring protein, hAKAP220, during spermatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2000, 223: 194-204. 10.1006/dbio.2000.9725.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mei X, Singh IS, Erlichman J, Orr GA: Cloning and characterization of a testis-specific, developmentally regulated A-kinase-anchoring protein (TAKAP-80) present on the fibrous sheath of rat sperm. Eur J Biochem. 1997, 246: 425-432. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.t01-1-00425.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin RY, Moss SB, Rubin CS: Characterization of S-AKAP84, a novel developmentally regulated A kinase anchor protein of male germ cells. J Biol Chem. 1995, 270: 27804-27811. 10.1074/jbc.270.46.27804.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.